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OPENSOpens are usually caused by insufficient reflow, missing balls, doming, pop corning or contaminated board surface conditions.
Insufficient reflow is usually a little more difficult to spot. Some of the characteristics of a solder joint, which has not reflowed properly, include rough grainy appearances on the edges of the solder joint and an irregular shape of the joint.
Doming is a defect common when a package has not been stored in nitrogen or other types of non-humidity chambers. The characteristics of the doming effect are the center solder joints of the BGA are slightly smaller than those on the outside edge.
Potato chipping occurs when a components outside edge lifts up from a pad. This will cause the center joints to appear squashed as a result of overheating the component.
Voids are usually found on boards which have not been through reflow long enough. They are typically created by flux gases that are unable to escape.
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