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Navarro

Over 15 years ago, Barney Navarro produced his Hi-Dome high performance cylinder heads for the Ford flathead V8. These heads have the area above the piston shaped the same as the early Chrysler hemi pistons.

A ball or sphere reduces the surface area to the smallest unit of volume. These heads are not a pop-up design and the piston does not extend into a cavity that blocks the transfer area. Instead, the shape forces all of the charge into the combustion area over the valves and promotes turbulence. As the piston moves down in the cylinder, the transfer area is opened immediately.

When looking at the photo of the interior of the Navarro high dome head castings (at right), you will note the bracing which is available on no other similar product.

This design, along with the pad over the exhaust valve allows for good compression along with excellent breathing characteristics. These features along with larger valves, radiusing the combustion chamber walls behind the intake valves and filling a portion of the valve bowl, produces over 30% more airflow and a similar resultant gain in horsepower. A 2-pattern cam should be used with these heads since the 1 1/2 exhaust valve doesnt have to open 7/16 to 1/2 like big intake valves.

Since this combination requires a special order set of pistons, the total package is not cheap.However, building a hot flathead is not an inexpensive proposition to begin with and compared with the total cost, this package is in line with other components. This is not an area to skimp on if you are really serious about the results.

Lukovich Racing Engines

Lukovich 383 / 468 ci Small Block Chevy Short Block Kits use name brand, quality components and include internal/external balancing with pin fitted rods and pistons. The block is machined, honed, race prepped, washed & lubricated, then sealed in a plastic bag ready for assembly.

Our Street & Strip Short Block Kits were designed for approximately 500 hp engines that will see both street and strip duty with a budget price. Forged pistons will let you spray this combo without worry if you want to add a little (50-100hp) Punch! This kit includes:

Forged 5140 I beam lightweight steel connecting rods

SRP/Pro True forged aluminum pistons & wrist pins

Federal Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

File fit rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd

Pro Street Kits have additional strength & durability by adding the 4340 forged steel crankshaft

Forged 4340 steel crankshaft w/nitrided rod & main journals

Forged 5140 steel I beam lightweight rods

SRP/Pro True forged aluminum pistons with wrist pins, locks and oil support rails when required

File fit Rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring and standard tension oil ring

Federal-Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

Dart SHP 4 bolt (center caps) 350 Main Cast Iron Block

Forced Induction Short Block Kits are desiged with beefier components for Blower / Turbo and Nitrous Power adders up to 500 hp over naturally aspirated engines.

4340 forged steel crankshaft with double keyways

Forged 4340 H beam rods with ARP2000 bolts

SRP/Pro True forged aluminum pistons with wrist pins, locks and oil support rails when required

File fit Rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring and standard tension oil ring

Federal-Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

Dart SHP 4 bolt (center caps) 350 Main Cast Iron Block

Additional and Custom Kits Available – Call for details!

The Competition Series Small Block Short Block Kit adds the H Beam rods for more strength & durability. Pretty serious stuff from here on!

Forged 4340 steel crankshaft w/nitrided rod & main journals

Forged 4340 H-Beam 3-D connecting rods and SRP/Pro True pistons

Federal Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings.

File fit rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring

standard or low tension oil rings and oil rail support when required.

Dart SHP 4 bolt (center caps) 350 Main Cast Iron Block

Additional and Custom Kits Available – Call for details!

UBUILD IT SBC Short Block Kits are designed for custom cubic inch applications from 350 through 500 ci displacement.

Call us with your specifications and we will help you select the right parts & the right price.

Pro Series Options and upgrades to our standard SBC Kits – step up to the next level!

CALLIES DRAGONSLAYER 4340 3.875 TO 4.125 CRANK

CALLIES COMP STAR 4340 FORGED STEEL RODS

EAGLE 3D RODS W/ARP L19/2000 ROD BOLTS

WISECO/JE PRO SERIES 14 TO 1 PISTONS

MANLEY H BEAM RODS W/ARP 2000 BOLTS

BALANCING HEAVY METAL (WHEN REQUIRED)

MOROSO OIL PAN/PUMP KIT INCLUDES PAN, GASKET, BOLT KIT, OIL PUMP W/WELDED PICKUP & STUD

POLISHED ALUMINUM TIMING CHAIN COVER & BILLET TIMING POINTER KIT

Lukovich 460 through 746 ci Big Block Chevy Short Block Kits use name brand, quality components and include internal/external balancing with pin fitted rods and pistons. The block is machined, honed, race prepped, washed & lubricated, then sealed in a plastic bag ready for assembly.

The Street & Strip Short Block Kit is designed for approximately 600 hp engines that will see both street and strip duty with a budget price. Forged pistons will let you spray (50-100 HP) this combo without worry if you want to add a little extra Punch!

Forged I Beam lightweight 5140 steel connecting rods

SRP/Pro True forged aluminum pistons & wrist pins

Federal Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

File fit rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring

Forged 5140 steel I beam lightweight rods

SRP/Pro True forged aluminum pistons with wrist pins, locks and oil support rails when required

File fit Rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring and standard tension oil ring

Federal-Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

Dart Big M splayed 4 bolt main ductile cap block

Forced Induction Short Block Kits are desiged with beefier components for Blower / Turbo and Nitrous Power adders up to 500 hp over naturally aspirated engines.

Forged 4340 steel crankshaft with double keyways

Forged 4340 H beam rods w/ARP 2000 bolts

JE forged aluminum pistons with wrist pins, locks and oil support rails when required

File fit Rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring and standard tension oil ring

Federal-Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings

Dart Big M splayed 4 bolt main ductile cap block

BIG BLOCK CHEVY FORCED INDUCTION SHORT BLOCK KITS

Additional and Custom Kits Available – Call for details!

Big Block Chevy Short Block Kits include

Forged 4340 crankshaft with induction hardened journals

Forged 4340 H-Beam 3- D connecting rods

Federal Mogul or Clevite 77 rod and main bearings.

File fit Rings include plasma ductile iron top ring, reverse twist 2nd ring, standard or low tension oil ring and oil rail support when required.

Flat top and 14cc dome pistons can be used with closed chamber cylinder heads, and 18cc and larger dome pistons use with open chamber cylinder heads only.

Dart Big M splayed 4 bolt main ductile cap block

UBUILD IT Big Block Chevy Kits – from a tough BBC to a just plain nasty BBC, our short block kits can fill your engine bay while being easy on your wallet! Call us with your specifications and we will help you select the right parts & the right price.

Pro Series Options and upgrades to our standard BBC Kits!

CALLIES 4340 DRAGONSLAYER 4.000 TO 4.250 CRANK

CALLIES 4340 DRAGONSLAYER 4.375 TO 4.500 CRANK

MANLEY H BEAM 4340 FORGED STEEL RODS

EAGLE 3D RODS W/ARP L19/2000 ROD BOLTS

WISECO/JE PRO SERIES 14 TO 1 PISTONS

BALANCING HEAVY METAL (WHEN REQUIRED)

OIL VALLEY DEBRIS SCREEN (REQUIRES MACHINING)

PRO SERIES ALUMINUM PAN & MOROSO BILLET PUMP

Conex Metals

to the world of Brass components Brass Fittings Brass Fasteners Brass Nuts Brass Anchors hose fittings and non ferrous metals.is Indias third largest exporter of Brass and Copper parts with ISO 9001:2000 certification. We have a fully integrated unit which manufactures and markets Brass components and Brass fittings worldwide. We sell direct to OEMs and users in Europe, America , Australia, Canada etc.

We started as a family company 3 decades back and have evolved in to one stop non ferrous metal part solution. We have made exhaustive investment in to machines , instruments and processes and can deliver world class components at very competitive prices.

Progressing with our continuously increasing yearly sales, it is obvious our philosophy to please the customer with quality products and competitive price is being achieved,. We welcome you to join us in this growth story and have a symbiotic relationship.

Conex is known for its perfection in Quality, Delivery and Prices. We are always eager to serve our customers in a better way and apply new ideas to improve our quality. We very strictly abide timings given to our customers.

We offer-Brass Parts Brass Fittings Brass Components Brass nuts Manufacturers, Exporters of Competitive Brass Plumbing fittings PPR fittings Moulding inserts , Cable Glands, Hose Fittings, Electrical Components, Screws and Brass Fittings Brass Parts Fittings Brass Plumbing Fittings Electrical Components Electrical Accessories Hose Fittings Brass fasteners Wood Screws Brass Pipe Fittings Brass Nuts Brass Components Brass Fittings Brass Turned Parts India manufacturers Brass Nuts Brass Fasteners Copper Lugs Hose barbs etc We can offer Brass fittings from CDA 360 and our parts are ROHS complaint.

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History

A geodesic sphere is an arrangement of polygons that approximates a true sphere. A geodesic dome is a portion of a geodesic sphere. Buildings or roofs have been constructed out of geodesic domes that range from 5-100% of a sphere. Domes used for houses are usually arrays of triangles that form three-or five-eighths of a geodesic sphere.

Geodesic domes are efficient structures in several ways. The triangle is a very stable shape; for example, a force applied to the corner of a rectangle can deform it into a parallelogram, but the same force will not deform a triangle. This makes geodesic dome buildings highly resistant to such forces as snow coverings, earthquakes, wind, and even tornadoes. The surface area of a geodesic dome is only 38% of the surface area of a box-shaped building enclosing the same floor space. There is less surface exposed to outdoor temperature fluctuations, making the building cheaper to heat and cool than a rectilinear structure. Geodesic domes can be constructed quickly without heavy equipment. Using prefabricated components, it takes just a few people to erect the dome for a 2,000-sq ft (185-sq m) home in 10 hours or less.

A geometric dome supports itself without needing internal columns or interior load-bearing walls. This property makes such structures appealing for use as churches, sports arenas, and exhibition halls. The aesthetic appeal of lofty ceilings makes them attractive as homes, and full or partial second-story floors are easily suspended halfway up the enclosure without any support other than attachment to the dome itself.

In 1919, seeking a way to build a larger planetarium, German engineer Walter Bauersfeld decided to mount movable projectors within a stationary dome. Until that time, planetarium domes rotated while external light entered through holes on the dome shell to simulate stars and planets. This limited the practical size of the dome and the number of people it could hold. Bauersfelds concept of interior projection would work in a much larger dome. The first model constructed was more than half of a sphere; 52 ft (16 m) in diameter. Bauersfeld solved the problem of how to construct such a large sphere by approximating it with an icosahedron (20-sided solid with equal triangular faces) and subdividing each face into smaller triangles. He framed the triangles from nearly 3,500 thin iron rods. To construct a spherical shell over this framework, he erected a sphefical wooden form inside the frame and sprayed on a pasty concrete mixture. The shell was designed to be the same proportional thickness as that of an eggshell compared to its diameter, a ratio later considered appropriate for geodesic domes.

Thirty years later, R. Buckminster Fuller, an American architect, engineer, poet, and philosopher, independently invented a similar structural system. Following World War II, Fuller wanted to design affordable, efficient housing that could be built quickly from mass-produced components. Willing to look outside of conventional approaches, Fuller began to work with spherical shapes because they enclose a given space with a minimum of surface area. He first framed spheres with a network of strips approximating great circles (circles on a sphere with centers that coincide with the spheres center); the strips formed triangles as they crossed one another. He called the product a geodesic dome because great circles are known as geodesics (from a Greek word meaning earth dividing). Eventually, Fuller began forming spheres from hexagons and pentagons (like the panels on a soccer ball) and dividing them into triangles for strength and ease of construction.

In 1953, Fuller used his new system to cover the 93-ft (28-m) diameter courtyard surrounded by Ford Motor Companys headquarters building. The building was not designed to support the great weight of a traditional dome, but Fullers creation weighed 95% less. He completed the design and construction in only three months. A temporary mast erected in the center of the courtyard supported the dome during construction, and the structure was incrementally raised and rotated following completion of each new section. The frame consisted of 12,000 aluminum struts weighing a total of 3,750 lb (1,700 kg) that were connected to form triangles and then lifted into position and riveted to the growing frame. When the dome was completed, it was gently lowered onto mounts that had been installed on the existing building. A clear fiberglass panel was installed in each triangle to complete the dome.

In 1954, Fuller received a patent on geodesic domes. During the 1960s and 1970s, an era in which unconventionality was prized, geometric domes became popular as an inexpensive way for environmentally conscious people to build their own homes. Instructions were widely available, but the quality of materials (including such strange choices as paper mache and discarded tin cans) and the skill of do-it-yourself builders were inconsistent. Amateur-built domes tended to leak when it rained, insufficient use of insulation limited their energy efficiency, and inadequate numbers of skylights left interiors dreary.

Fuller predicted that a million geodesic domes would be built by the mid-1980s, but by the early 1990s, estimates placed the worldwide number somewhere between 50,000 and 300,000. A small but persistent contingent of unconventional homebuilders continue to build geodesic dome homes, primarily from kits. However,Newsdayreported in 1992 that the majority of geodesic dome structures have been built for green-houses, storage sheds, defense shelters, and tourist attractions. One of the most recognizable of these is the 165-ft (48-m) diameter sphere at Walt Disney Worlds Epcot Center. Built of composite panels of ethylene plastic and aluminum in 1982, the structure houses a ride called Spaceship Earth, a termed coined by Fuller himself.

Geodesic domes range in size from the 460-ft (143-m) Poliedro de Caracas sports arena in Venezuela to temporary shelters that are 15 ft (5 m) or less in diameter. Consequently, construction materials vary widely. Simple, movable structures may be built of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe or galvanized steel conduit frames covered with plastic sheeting or parachute canopies. Large, permanent structures like arenas and factories have been built from materials like aluminum and steel frame struts covered with aluminum, copper, structural gypsum, acrylic, or Plexiglas panels.

Most residential dome kit manufacturers use wood components, primarily kiln-dried Douglas fir struts covered with 0.5-in (1.3-cm) exterior-or structural-grade plywood. Such kits include various designs of connectors to securely fasten the wood struts together in the proper configuration; high-strength aluminum, or steel coated with zinc, epoxy, or industrial primer are commonly used for connectors. Zinc-plated steel bolts secure the connectors and paneling is nailed on.

A few kit manufacturers use altemative materials to make prefabricated panels that combine the frame and exterior covering. One, for example, makes molded fiberglass panels. Another supplies reinforced concrete panels; steel mesh extending from the panel edges is overlapped with mesh from the adjoining panel, and the joint is sealed with concrete.

Most dome kits are built atop concrete foundation slabs. Often, these slabs are recessed into the ground to provide a basement level. Foundation walls and riser walls (vertical walls below the dome that may be used to raise its overall height) are usually made of concrete or wood. Interior insulation generally

consists of fiberglass batting or sprayed-on urethane, cellulose, or Icynene plastic foam.

Although dome homes are built from manufactured kits, designs are flexible. As many as half of the triangles in the domes lowest row can be removed without weakening the structure, so door and window openings can be plentiful. Vertical-walled extensions can be built out from such openings to increase the floor space. The dome can sit directly on ground-level footings (short walls recessed into the ground to bear the buildings weight), or it can be erected atop a riser wall up to 8 ft (2.5 m) tall.

Space must be provided between the interior and exterior walls to accommodate insulation. Some manufacturers create this space by making the struts from wood that is 4-8 in (10-20 cm) thick. Others make this space 14.5-21 in (37-53 cm) thick by using compound struts consisting of two strips of lumber joined with plywood gussets.

The following is a composite of techniques used by several individuals using kits from various manufacturers.

1 After clearing and leveling the home site, a trench is dug for the foundation footing, following detailed drawings supplied by the kit manufacturer. The base of the dome is not circular; rather, it is outlined by five short walls alternating with five long walls (twice the length of the short walls). Forms are placed for the footings; many builders like to use permanent Styrofoam forms that need not be removed. Concrete is then poured in the footing forms.

2 A layer of sand may be used to further level the surface and provide a base for the foundation slab. Reinforcing steel bars are tied together in a grid, and concrete is poured to form the foundation.

3 Foundation walls are built atop the footings, up to approximately ground level. If desired, riser walls (which are provided as part of the kit) are installed atop the foundation walls and bolted to one another.

4 Floor joists are installed by standing wooden 2×12 (1.5×1.5 in [3.8×29.2]) boards 16 in (40 cm) apart above the foundation. The joists are nailed to a perimeter wooden frame and a wooden crossbeam. Three-quarter-inch (1.9-cm) thick plywood sheets are laid across the joists and nailed in place.

The superstructure typically consists of 60 triangular panels. Depending on the desired size of the dome, the panels are usually 6-10 ft (1.8-3 m) on a side. They may be prefabricated with the exterior panels installed, or they may constructed on site from precut lumber and metal connectors.

If dome panels were supplied with the kit, they are set atop the foundation or riser walls and connected to one another in a sequence prescribed by the manufacturer. Until enough panels are connected to support themselves, they must be braced with poles radiating out from a block in the center of the floor. The following steps describe the more common case of frame erection followed by exterior panel installation:

5 Base plates are installed atop the foundation or riser walls. These precisely beveled 4×6-in (lOx15-cm) wood strips provide a transition between the horizontal top edge of the walls and the slightly tilted triangles of the domes bottom strip of panels.

6 Matching the color coding on the kits wooden struts and metal connectors, a triangle is formed and secured with bolts. The triangle is lifted into position and bolted to the wall and/or to the adjacent triangles. Successive rows of triangular elements are placed until the dome is completely formed. Because of their light weight, the triangles do not need supplementary bracing to hold them in place during construction.

7 Wooden studs are nailed inside each triangle. Running perpendicular to one side of the triangle, they are placed about 16 in (40 cm) apart. If an odd number of studs is used, the center one is secured against a per-pendicular block near the triangles vertex, rather than extending to the vertex.

8 Matching color-coded edges, the plywood panels are lifted into position on the exterior of each triangle and nailed into place. By working downward from the top of the dome, the worker can stand on the open framework below while attaching each panel.

9 Vertical walls and roofs are framed for any desired extensions that will project outward from the dome. Plywood panels are nailed to the exterior faces of the extensions. Dormer extensions can also be erected for second-story windows.

10 Windows, skylights, and exterior doors are installed.

11 The roof is covered with rubber sheeting, and conventional roofing material (such as shingles or tiles) is applied.

12 Conventional siding material (such as stucco or vinyl siding) is applied to the exterior of the riser walls.

13 Insulation is placed between the struts and studs inside the dome and extension walls.

14 Walls are framed to divide the interior into rooms. Conventional drywall sheets are cut according to patterns included in the kit, and they are nailed to the interior walls and the inside surfaces of the dome and riser walls. Because of the many angles between triangular sections of the dome, amateur builders often hire a professional to tape the drywall joints.

A quality geodesic dome structure is airtight and structurally sound. These are the factors that lower energy costs, the main consideration when building a geodesic home. Because the structure is basically airtight, condensation can sometimes be a problem. Normally it is controlled by the heating and cooling system but when the house has been closed up for a few days, moisture can build up. This is easily solved by turning the air system on or opening a door or window.

Richard Buckminster Fuller was born July 12, 1895, in Milton, Massachusetts. He entered Harvard University in 1913 but was expelled twoyears later. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett and formed a construction company. In 1923, Fuller invented the stockade brick-laying methodbricks with vertical holes reinforced with concrete. In 1927 he designed a factory-assembled Dymaxion house, a self-contained unit suspended from a central mast with a complete recycling system. Dymaxion was a term he used for anything deriving maximum output from minimum input. Fuller also designed a Dymaxion caran omnidirectional vehicle that gave minimum wind resistancein 1928. This vehicle could seat 12, make 180 turns, run easily at 120 mph (193 kmph), and average 28 mi/gal (12 km/I) but was unprofitable because automobile manufacturers wouldnt mass produce it.

Fullers financial break came in 1940 with his Dymaxion Deployment Unit (DDUj, a circular self-cooled living unit with pie-shaped, corrugated steel rooms. The British used DDUs in World War II. In 1949, Fuller started work on geodesic domes. He applied for a patent in 1951 and received a contract in 1953 from Ford Motor Company to build a dome over their head-quarters courtyard in Detroit. The U.S. Defense Department became Fullers largest customer, using domes as temporary housing units and to protect radar equipment from harsh environments.

At the time of his death in 1983, Fullers domes were used worldwide. In 1985, fullerene was discovered. Fullerenes are carbon atoms arranged in sphere-like shapes with pentagonal and hexagonal faces, similar to geodesic domes. These bucky balls have up to 980 carbon atoms.

Future refinements in geodesic dome construction may come from improved building materials. For example, in 1997 a concrete block manufacturer developed a hollow, beveled, triangular block with scored edges that could interlock with adjacent blocks. Properly shaped, such blocks could be used to construct domes.

Another innovation involves designing domes based on a different mathematical premise. In a true geodesic dome, the edges of the triangular elements align to form great circles. Although not geodesic, a new design patented in 1989 uses hexagons and pentagons to form domes with an elliptical cross section. Because of its mathematical derivation, this design is called geotangent.

Although geodesic domes maximize strength while minimizing construction materials, elliptical-profile domes offer two different advantages. They can cover a circular area without rising as high as a spherical dome. And they can cover elongated or irregularly shaped areas that vary in elevation. Located in northern Mexico, the worlds largest industrial domes are a pair of manufacturing buildings covered with elliptical roofs 735 ft (224 m) long and 260 ft (80 m) wide.

DiChristina, Mariette. Elliptical Dome.Popular Science(January 1990): 74.

Horton, Ted. The Dome.Mother Earth News(June/July 1999): 64.

Sieden, Lloyd Steven. The Birth of the Geodesic Dome: How Bucky Did It.The Futurist(November/December 1989): 14+. (January 6, 2000).

An Introduction to Geodesic Domes. 2, 1999).

Design and Construction of Alpine Dome Homes. Alpine Domes. 6, 2000).

Home Sweet Dome. 6, 2000).

You mentioned Buckys dome built for the Ford Motor Company in 1953. Do you know what happened to it later on? When I was a teenager I used to work as a theatre apprentice at the Northland Playhouse which was in a dome. The Playhouse was built on the edge of a parking lot at Northland Shopping Center in Southfield, Michigan. I was there in 1959 and 1960 but Im sure the theatre was there for some time before and after me. We had two domes, the larger one as the theatre and a smaller one we used as a workshop to build scenery. I never knew where these domes originated. I seriously doubt they were made for the theatre (operators were cheapskates). Its more likely they were built for some other reason and then reused for the theatre. Our domes had a soft rubber like skin that was support by the frame but didnt cover the frame…at least I think thats so. It was a long time ago. I also never knew what happened to the domes after the theatre closed. Do you know anything about these domes? Im just curious, thats all. Thanks in advance, Roy

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Volume 6

An action figure is a doll-like toy designed to resemble characters from movies or literature. The figures can be articulated to hold a variety of poses and may come equipped with accessories, such as clothing, tools, weapons, and vehicles.

An air freshener is a product designed to mask or remove unpleasant room odors. These products typically deliver fragrance and other odor counteractants into the air.

An angioplasty balloon is a medical device that is inserted into a clogged artery and inflated to clear blockage and allow blood to flow. The full medical name for the angioplasty procedure is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

A natural heart has two pumps, each with two chambers. The right atrium pumps oxygen-depleted blood from the body into the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs.

A heart valve acts as a check valve, opening and closing to control blood flow. This cycle occurs about 40 million times per year or two billion in an average lifetime.

Family members have carried babies in a variety of carriers since the beginning of human civilization. Baby carriers keep the baby close and provide the infant with comfort and security while allowing the carrier some freedom to work and care for other members of the family.

Baby wipes are disposable cloths used to cleanse the sensitive skin of infants. These cloths are made from non-woven fabrics similar to those used in dryer sheets and are saturated with a solution of gentle cleansing ingredients.

The backhoe is one of the most commonly seen pieces of construction equipment because of its adaptability. Its cousin, the front-end loader, is also a smaller piece of equipment that has a broad bucket like the one on the front of the backhoe for hauling soil, debris, and materials, and lifting them up into trucks.

The bagpipe is a wind instrument with a number of pipes and a bag. The melody pipe, or chanter, has finger holes that are played to produce the tune.

Baking powder is a solid mixture that is used as a chemical leavening agent in baked goods. It can be composed of a number of materials, but usually contains baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3), cream of tartar (potassium bitartrate, C4H5KO6), and cornstarch.

Basketball can make a true claim to being the only major sport that is an American invention. From high school to the professional level, basketball attracts a large following for live games as well as television coverage of events like the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) annual tournament and the National Basketball Association (NBA) and Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) playoffs.

A boomerang is an aerodynamically shaped object designed to fly efficiently through the air when thrown by hand. The term usually refers to an object made to follow a circular flight path that returns it to the thrower.

Fist fighting has existed as a form of entertainment since the early days of human civilization. Some form of the sport appeared as long as 6,000 years ago in present-day Ethiopia.

Brass is a metal composed primarily of copper and zinc. Copper is the main component, and brass is usually classified as a copper alloy.

Aromatic herbs have been used throughout history in a number of ways; fragrant soaps, pomanders, bath-water fresheners, potpourri, sachets, incense, scented candles, and natural herbs to sweeten sour breath are common in most cultures and popular today. Aromatic herbs have the advantage of driving away insects, and the mint family has an especially excellent reputation for keeping pests away from people and other plants.

Brooms have been used for centuries to sweep up, in, and around the home and workplace. They may be made from a variety of materials, both man-made and natural.

A canal is a man-made waterway. Canals are built for a variety of uses including irrigation, land drainage, urban water supply, hydroelectric power generation, and transportation of cargo and people.

Candy corn are the small pieces of triangular candy made primarily from corn syrup, honey and sugar (it is usually fat-free) and is traditionally colored in a specific pattern of three stripes. It is recognized by the white tip, orange in the center, and yellow at the widest end.

Caramel is often eaten as little brown, sweet, buttery nuggets wrapped in cello-phane, but it is also delicious in candy bars and on top of fresh popcorn. The best caramels are sweet and just a bit chewy.

Cherries may be either deliciously sweet and deep brown-red, or quite tart and bright red. The two most common are the sweet cherry, Prunus avium L., and the sour (often referred to by growers as the pie or tart) cherry Prunus cerasus L..

Chess is a classic two person board game. It is played with specially designed pieces on a square board made up of 64 alternating light and dark squares arranged in eight rows and columns.

A clothes iron is a household appliance used to press the wrinkles out of and creases into clothes. When the iron is turned on, the consumer moves it over an item of clothing on an ironing board.

Cognac, a type of brandy, is considered to be one of the finest, if not the finest, of the spirits. It is made from white grapes grown in the Charante region of France, and is named after the town of Cognac in the French region of Charante.

What is commonly called a coconut, as found in grocery stores, is actually only the single seed of a fruit of the coconut palm tree (Cocos nucifera). Before being shipped to market, the seed is stripped of an external leathery skin and a 2-3 in (5-8 cm) thick intermediate layer of fibrous pulp.

A comic book portrays a story through a series of sequential illustrations that incorporate short bits of text containing dialogue, sounds, or narratives. The story may be humorous, or it may present a world of adventure, mystery, or fantasy.

Uncorking a bottle of wine presents a challenge. There is no way to grip the cork, which is completely recessed in the bottles neck.

Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll.

The cuckoo clock is a favorite souvenir of travelers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and particularly the Black Forest region of Germany. The clock is prized for a number of its features.

Washing dishes is not the most rewarding task. Cooking can be creative, but cleaning up afterward seems like a waste of time and leaves the person washing complaining about dishpan hands. The development of the dishwasher has helped relieve some of the monotony, as well as the grease and grime.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis is a process by which copies of nucleic acid strands are made. In nature, DNA synthesis takes place in cells by a mechanism known as DNA replication.

A bridge over a navigable waterway must allow boats and ships to cross its path, usually by being tall enough to allow them to sail underneath it. Sometimes it is impractical to build a bridge high enough; for example, it may rise too steeply or block the view of an important landmark.

Duct tape is a cloth tape coated with a poly-ethylene resin on one side and very sticky rubber-based adhesive on the other. Unlike other tapes, the fabric backing gives duct tape strength yet allows it to be easily torn.

An electric blanket is a bed covering with a built-in heating element so that a sleeper can maintain a desired temperature even in a cold room. Many consumers prefer electric blankets because their use can reduce home heating costs.

Electronic ink is a special type of ink that can display different colors when exposed to an electric field. It is made through a two step process that involves creating two-toned charged particles and encapsulating them in a transparent polymeric shell.

Evaporated and condensed milk are two types of concentrated milk from which the water has been removed. Evaporated milk is milk concentrated to one-half or less its original bulk by evaporation under high pressures and temperatures, without the addition of sugar, and usually contains a specified amount of milk fat and solids.

A faucet is a device for delivering water from a plumbing system. It can consist of the following components: spout, handle(s), lift rod, cartridge, aerator, mixing chamber, and water inlets.

A ferris wheel is an amusement park ride consisting of a large vertical wheel with places for people to sit or stand spaced evenly around the outer circumference. In operation, the ferris wheel revolves about a horizontal axis, and the riders are alternately lifted and then lowered as they are carried around the wheel in a circle.

A flashlight is a portable, battery-operated device used for illumination. A typical unit consists of one or more dry cell batteries arranged in a line inside a battery compartment that forms the handle of the light.

Footbags are small, soft pliable bags filled with pellets or other small solid objects. Also known as Hacky Sacksthe brand name for certain footbagsthey are a little bigger than a golf ball, a few inches in diameter and an ounce or so in weight.

A geodesic sphere is an arrangement of polygons that approximates a true sphere. A geodesic dome is a portion of a geodesic sphere.

The gyroscope is a familiar toy that is deceptively simple in appearance and introduces children to several mechanical principles, although they may not realize it. Something like a complex top made of precisely machined metal, the gyroscope is a spinning wheel that may be set within two or more circular frames, each oriented along a different line or axis.

A halogen lamp is a type of incandescent lamp. The conventional incandescent lamp contains a tungsten filament sealed within a glass envelope that is either evacuated or filled with an inert gas or a mixture of these gases (typically nitrogen, argon and krypton).

An industrial hard hat is a helmet worn to protect the head of a worker from falls or from impacts by sharp or blunt objects. Typical users include construction laborers, repairmen, and warehouse workers.

The harpsichord is the distinguished, classical ancestor of the piano. Its shape, described as a large wing shape, was developed hundreds of years before the similar shape of the grand piano.

Hockey pucks are flat, solid, black disk-shaped objects made of vulcanized rubber. Regulation National Hockey League (NHL) pucks are black, 3 in (7.6 cm) in diameter, 1 in (2.54 cm) thick, and weighing 5.5-6 oz (154-168 g).

Horseshoes protect a horses hooves from wear on hard or rough surfaces. They are also designed to improve a horses gait, to help its conformation (how the horse stands), and to control interference problems (when hooves or legs collide with each other).

The late 1950s saw one of biggest fads documented by sociologists, the Hula Hoop. Like many fads, the hoop is deceptively simple.

Today, the ice cream cone is a standard in any ice cream store or stand. This tasty treat is known as a way to cool down in the summer and makes an edible container for a cold snack.

Indigo, or indigotin, is a dyestuff originally extracted from the varieties of the indigo and woad plants. Indigo was known throughout the ancient world for its ability to color fabrics a deep blue.

Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. that grows to a height anywhere from 4-15 ft (1.2-4.5 m) and up to 0.75 in (2 cm) in diameter.

The jawbreaker is a type of hard, round candy that is ideally so difficult to bite down on that it must be sucked. Jawbreakers range from the size of a hazel nut to the size of a golf ball, and come in many flavors and colors.

The kaleidoscope makes magic with light and mirrors. It may be considered a childs toy (or a toy for all ages), but it is also a simple optical device with technical applications for designers and pattern-makers.

Litmus paper is the most recognized member of chemical indicators. Like most pH paper, litmus changes color when exposed to an acidic or basic solution.

Lollipops, or suckers as some call them, are essentially hard candies with a short stick of some sort. The tightly wrapped white paper stick serves as a handle, and the hard candy lollipop is either sucked or bitten apart until consumed.

The matryoshka doll is a symbol of Russia and its culture. It is truly a dolla childs playthingbut it began its history just over 100 years ago as a highly collectible art form.

Mayonnaise is a cold, emulsification used as sauce or as a condiment. It is made by blending egg yolks and oil, then flavored with varying combinations of vinegar, mustard, herbs and spices.

Mouthwash is a liquid oral product designed to freshen breath. Certain varieties may also kill bacteria and/or whiten teeth.

Natural gas is a mixture of combustible gases formed underground by the decomposition of organic materials in plant and animal. It is usually found in areas where oil is present, although there are several large underground reservoirs of natural gas where there is little or no oil.

Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays, edible products, inhalers, and skin patches.

Paintball is a game developed in the 1980s that soon became popular worldwide. Players shoot pellets of paint from airguns at opposing players in a strategic game similar to the childrens classic Capture the Flag.

Patent leather is leather that has been finished with chemicals that give it a shiny, reflective surface. It is usually black, and has long been popular for dress and dancing shoes.

Americans usually have two or three pillows on their bed. Today, pillows are stuffed primarily with materials such as polyester (a synthetic), feathers, down, or a combination of the latter two.

Pinball is a popular coin-operated game frequently found in amusement arcades. Players shoot small balls through complicated paths and into targets on a playing field under glass.

Polyurethanes are linear polymers that have a molecular backbone containing carbamate groups (-NHCO2). These groups, called urethane, are produced through a chemical reaction between a diisocyanate and a polyol.

In pool (the common American term for pocket billiards), a ball is struck with the end of a long, slender stick (cue), causing it to roll into other balls and knock them into holes (pockets) around the edges of the playing table. A short wall (rail) around the perimeter of the table keeps the balls on the playing surface.

The sound of an ice cream truck is a delight to the ears of children and adults alike on a hot summer day. That truck carries delicious concoctions that the industry calls collectively frozen novelties. And it is guaranteed to carry a variety of frozen popsices, sherbets, pops in push tubes, and pops on sticksin fruit flavors and colorful shapes and sizes.

Raincoats are jackets made of fabric that is specially treated to repel water. In 1836, Charles Macintosh invented a method for combining rubber with fabric, which was used in the first modern raincoats.

A roller coaster is an amusement park ride where passengers sit in a series of wheeled cars that are linked together. The cars move along a pair of rails supported by a wood or steel structure.

Rubber cement is a solution of unvulcanized (gum) rubber in a solvent, and is used as an adhesive. Ideally, it is meant to join two pieces of rubber together, which involves a chemical cohesion process.

For people who like to be near the water, sailboats provide a means of skimming over its surface. Even when the water is frozen, iceboats (sailboats with runners or blades on the hull) can glide across the ice.

Salad dressing is a type of sauce used to bind and flavor greens and/or vegetables.

A saxophone is a single reed, woodwind instrument first developed in the mid-1800s by Adolphe Sax. It is composed of a mouthpiece, conical metal tube, and finger keys.

The fruits that are grown, sold, and eaten are essentially the ripened ovary of a plant. In the wild, fruit-bearing plants spread their seeds either by dropping their ripe fruits to the ground or by being eaten by animals, who then excrete the seeds.

A laser, which is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, is a device that converts energy into light. Electrical or optical energy is used to excite atoms or molecules, which then emit light.

It is understand how important shoes are for protecting feet from hazards and weather, and proper fit is necessary to maximize protection and comfort for the shoes wearer. The shoelace is one way to ensure the proper fit, and a simple pair of laces, costing less than two dollars, can make all the difference in the world to the look and fit of a shoe.

Shortbread is a traditional Scottish baked good with a relatively simple recipe that consists of three basic ingredients (flour, butter, and sugar). Like most baked goods, it is produced in three steps consisting of ingredient mixing, product forming, and baking.

Second only to oxygen, silicon is the most abundant element in Earths crust. It is found in rocks, sand, clays and soils, combined with either oxygen as silicon dioxide, or with oxygen and other elements as silicates.

A skateboard is a small piece of wood in the shape of a surfboard with four wheels attached to it. A single person rides the skateboard, guiding the movement with his feet.

There is no precise definition of how many stories or what height makes a building a skyscraper. I dont think it is how many floors you have.

Slime is a unique play material composed of a cross-linked polymer. It is classified as a liquid and is typically made by combining polyvinyl alcohol solutions with borate ions in a large mixing container.

Snowshoes allow people to walk across the top of deep snow. They distribute weight so that the walker does not sink into soft drifts, and enable people to roam through landscapes that are usually impassible with only ordinary footwear.

Sodium chlorite is a compound used for water disinfection and purification. It is produced in large quantities as flakes or a solution from chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide.

A laser, which is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, is a device that converts electrical or optical energy into light. Electrical or optical energy is used to excite atoms or molecules, which then emit monochromatic (single wavelength) light.

Spam is a brand name for a canned meat product containing ham, pork, salt, flavorings, and preservatives that are mixed and cooked under vacuum pressure. There are other brands of similar canned pork meat products, but Spammade by Hormel Foods Corporationis the original and the best-selling of the brands.

A spring is a device that changes its shape in response to an external force, returning to its original shape when the force is removed. The energy expended in deforming the spring is stored in it and can be recovered when the spring returns to its original shape.

Steel wool is the name given to fine metal wire that are bundled together to form a cluster of abrasive, sharp-edged metal strips. The metal strips are massed together in a sheet, folded, and turned into pads that are easily held in the hand.

More than half of the United States lie in a broad strip between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains that is commonly called Tornado Alley. It has more tornado activity than any other area of the world.

Teeth whiteners are products designed to enhance the appearance of teeth by removing stains and improving brightness. These whiteners typically contain bleaching agents, such as hydrogen peroxide or other peroxygen-type chemicals, that remove organic residue and oxidize stains so they are less visible.

A machine gun is a weapon that fires a continuous stream of bullets as long as the trigger is held down. Many inventors worked to come up with such a gun, and early models are the well-known Gatling gun, used prominently in the American Civil War, and Hiram Maxims fully automatic weapon, patented in 1883.

Most of us cant imagine living without toilet paper. The average American uses over 100 single rollsabout 21,000 sheetseach year.

Scale models or model kits are produced by the millions and give hours of pleasure to hobbyists. Theyre sold in specialized hobby and craft stores as well as toy, department, and drug storeseven supermarkets may carry them.

Trophies are a category of awards given primarily for academic, work, and sport contests or events. They are physical evidence that one person or group has bested another in some contest.

A tunnel is an underground or underwater passage that is primarily horizontal. Relatively small-diameter ones carry utility lines or function as pipelines.

The ukulele is a string instrument that originated in Portugal in the second century B.C. With a small, guitar-shaped body that is fitted with four strings, it is considered a member of the chordophone family.

The vacuum cleaner is the appliance that frightens the cat, is chased by the dog, and, perhaps, gives a home the most immediate appearance of being clean. Imagining a home without a vacuum cleaner is next to impossible; yet, like many time-and effort-saving devices, its widespread use is less than a century old.

The term vermiculite applies to a group of minerals characterized by their ability to expand into long, worm-like strands when heated. This expansion process is called exfoliation.

Pump-action water guns are a relatively recent addition to the water gun arsenal. Plastic squirt guns have long been a staple summer-time toy of American children.

Wood pieces are often decorated to add color and appeal. Wood products are often imparted with a wood-tone stain to enhance the natural grain or add depth or tone to the wood.

There are many kinds of wrapping papers manufactured specifically for the types of products they are intended to wrap. For example, wrapping paper is made for bread for sanitary and aesthetic purposes.

The xylophone is a component of the percussion section of an orchestra and many instrumental groups. Its unique sound, relative rarity, and appearance make it fascinating to the listener.

ESP® Low-E

ESP® is continually striving to be at the forefront of the insulation industry.

ESP® is continually striving to be at the forefront of the insulation industry.

Environmentally Safe Products, Inc. produces the Low-E™ line of reflective foil insulation.

Discover even more ways to lower energy costs.

Scroll thru our media releases to the right for interesting articles on how Low-E™ Insulation Products can increase the energy effeciency of your home!

For full details go to ourMediaPage

Featured on the Designing Spaces TV Show

For Residential and Commercial Insulating

Practical Guide to Understanding Reflective Insulation! Click Image Below

Environmentally Safe Products, the maker of Low-E™ is a 25 year old privately owned American company headquartered in New Oxford, PA and is the premier manufacturer of reflective insulation on the market today. With two facilities located in New Oxford, Pennsylvania serving the eastern half of the US and our Reno, Nevada manufacturing plant serving the Western states, Environmentally Safe Products is well positioned to supply builders, remodelers and industry with their reflective insulation needs.

Walls & Ceilings, February 20, 2015, ESP® Low-E celebrates 25 Years

Walls & Ceilings, February 20, 2015, ESP® Low-E Celebrates 25 Years

rel= title=ESP Low-E celebrates 25 years

ESP Evolves Into Manufacturer with National Footprint

ESP® Evolves Into Manufacturer with National Footprint

Environmentally Safe Products is Expanding

Environmentally Safe Products is Expanding

Low-E™ Insulation Joins U.S. Department of Energy

Low-E™ Insulation Joins U.S. Department of Energy as partner in new Builders Challenge

Low-E™ Insulation Joins U.S. Department of Energy

Low-E™ Insulation Joins U.S. Department of Energy as partner in new Builders Challenge

Metal Mag article on Reflective Insulation

Metal Mag article on Reflective Insulation

ESP® Low-E Insulation in Walls & Ceilings Magazine

LLow-E™ Insulation in Walls & Ceilings Magazine

Metal Construction News Article (Housewrap) 12-2008

Metal Construction News Article (Housewrap) 12-2008

Low-E™ Housewrap Comparison Bulletin

Low-E™ Housewrap Comparison Bulletin

Low-E™ listed as one of GreenBuilder Magazines Hot 50 Products for 2008

Low-E listed as one of GreenBuilder Magazines Hot 50 Products for 2008

This link is a downloaded Federal Tax Credit form.

Low-E™ Insulation products are guaranteed against defects in material and workmanship for 20 years.

Find a dealer nearest you for all your ESP® Low-E product needs.

A List of Brochures Available to browse on our ESP® 286 Testing Information

Low-E™ Housewrap provides year round efficiency. See how our Housewrap can improve your energy consumption.

Did you know that Low-E™ uses 99% pure aluminum facings?

This manual is designed to assist you in understanding the R-values that can be achieved with the installation of ESP Low-E™ Insulation.

Click the link above for PDF brochures about our products. You must have Adobe Acrobat installed to view files.

In keeping with our company practice of the education of energy efficient products, Environmentally Safe Products, Inc. is pleased to announce that it is now approved to give continuing education credits for the American Institute of Architects. Our Sales Department is available to present Reflective Insulation: the nuts and bolts. This is a one hour seminar which will be worth 1HSW Credit. The program number is 100578 and any companies interested should contact ESP® at or visit the AIA website at look under continuing education using the program number. ESP® is excited about this new service and we look forward to serving the architectural community.

Low-E™ reflective insulation resists all three types of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. This space age product also provides a full vapor barrier with sound deadening properties.

John Schnuzel, California Shingle & Shake, NEMEON member and Low-E™ Partner

As a distributor of Low-E™ Reflective Insulation, our company is at the forefront of providing quality products that are a key component in meeting Californias stringent codes. By partnering with Low-E™, we are able to provide contractors with the education and solutions that allow them the ability to have a competitive edge – while expanding our market share and profit margin.

Low-E™ Reflective Insulation in our company has been well received with our staff and our professional contractors. We are growing leaps and bounds with their product lines. The quality of the product along with ease of use has changed our market dramatically. With a company like Low-E™ we will make the housing industry a better one by continuing to train our contractor customer base about the benefits of their reflective insulation and how in turn can change the economical savings for the end users.

Jeff Smith, ABC Supply Co. Inc. Reading, PA

ABC Reading brought in the Low-E™ house wrap in 2009 as a stepping stone to sell more insulation in the siding market. This product has taken off in our market not only on siding but under slabs and in attics. The house wrap is a one step process for the contractor reducing labor while providing energy efficiency for the homeowner. This product has been proven and tested by numerous contractors in our market stating it has reduced heating and cooling costs for their customers. ABC Reading is proud to promote the Low-E™ product line and looks forward to future growth with such an outstanding company.

We would highly recommend this insulation system to othersand we would not even consider constructing another building without ESP® Low-E installed in it.

In 44 years of living in this house the air conditioner has never cooled the 2nd floor adequetelyThe air conditioner finally cools the 2nd floor.

We have used Low-E™ insulation on many projects. Low-E™ has impressed us every single time. Low-E™ helps us in many ways.

I am particularily impressed that the Low-E™ remains undamaged despite the constant pounding by tennis balls at speeds occasionally exceeding 70 m.p.h

After installing this Low-E™ insulation in a crawl space of a building here in Alaska, I would like to acknowlwdge that this type of insulation is very easy to work with and install.

Environmentally Safe Products, Inc.

Business Hours: 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. M-F EST

National Golf Academy

Calgary just two blocks east of Macleod trail on 50th ave SW.

The Golf Dome itself is over50,000 square feetand complete with adouble decker 33 indoors range stalls,two golf simulators, putting green,repair and fitting studio featuring Simply Golf, as well as the home for the National Golf Academy.

The National Golf Academy (NGA)provides all instruction programs for the City of Calgary Recreation atMcCall Lake,Confederation Park,Shaganappi,as well as theRiverspirit Golf Club.

The dome is available forrentalfor other activities such as slow pitch leagues, flag football, soccer and more. The dome is also great for hosting large corporate events, charity fundraisers, and team building.

Dome Range and Simulator ONLINE Specials

Group Instruction Registration ALL VENUES

Ladies/Seniors day, Couples/buddies night

Spring/Summer 2018 Lesson programs PDF

© National Golf Academy powered byUSchedule

Punching hemispheres with dome puncs and block

And other metal melting techniques:

Propane melting furnace using cheap YTONG blocks as refractory

Propane melting furnace with larger capacity made from Mizzou concrete

Homemade optical (disappearing filament) pyrometer

Potassium chlorate making electrolysis

Punching hemispheres with dome punches and block

is a device with usually hemispheral dies in it, made of hardened steel (sometimes of brass or even hardwood) intended for making hemispheral shapes from sheet metal. A

is a globular punch to force sheet metal into a globular shape by giving it a hammer blow on the metal sheet disc which is laid in a dome block die. I use sheet metal of 0.25mm thick in a disk shaped 22mm diameter to get a 16mm diameter sphere. I just cut this out of sheet metal. Punching doms of silver or other malleable metal requires some experience. The problem is that the edges of the dome can be damaged when putting into a smaller die of the punch block.

Fortunately, all errors made by damaging is not a waste of material, as I just remelt them, pour it into a small slab which I rollagain into sheet.

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