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Proops 2 Solid Steel Doming Dapping Block, 18 Depressions from 3mm – 40mm. (J1504) Free UK Postage

25 pc Doming Block and Punch Set made of Steel Dapping craft metal working tool

Proops Wooden Doming Block and Punches. (M0031) Free UK Postage

Pro Quality 2.0 Solid Steel Doming Dapping Block Metal Shaping Bead Jewelry etc


Proops 41 piece Doming Block and Punch Set Made of Steel. (J1144) Free UK Postage.

Proops Large Doming Dapping Block, Bowl, 150mm 100mm 80mm. (J1126) Free UK Postage

Beadsmith DMW1 Wood Doming Block 2.25-inch x 2.25-inch x 2.25-inch

Proops Solid Steel Doming Dapping Block 2.5. (M0035) Free UK Postage

Jewellers Flat Doming Block 27 Concave Depressions 2.5mm to 25.0mm

Beadsmith V-DMW01 Wood Doming Block 2.25-inch x 2.25-inch x 2.25-inch

Pro Quality 2.5 Solid Steel Doming Dapping Block Metal Shaping Bead Jewelry etc

Jewellers Tools 37 pc Doming Block and Punch Set made of Steel Dapping craft metal shaping tool

Proops 8 Pc 5-27mm Doming Dapping Punch Set & Steel Doming Block in Wooden Stand (J1401). Free UK Postage

Proops 56 Piece Steel Doming Dapping Block Punch Swage Set Jewellery Making (J1475). Free UK Postage.


Watch Jewellers 2 1/4 Dapping block wooden wood holes doming forming tool

Proops Wooden Dapping Block with Steel Block & 5 x Wooden Doming Punches Set (J1500). Free UK Postage


Proops 2.5 Wooden Dapping Block with Channel Groove, Doming, Forming (J1354). Free UK Postage


3 Round Solid Steel & Nylon Doming Bench Block Anvil Jewellery Jewelery Tool


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Blocks Dapping Equipment

Visit Us at JCK Las Vegas Booth B60046 and B62046

Fretz Extra Concave Cone Stake M-107

Fretz Stake Holder for 100 Series Stakes

Fretz F-2B Medium/Sharp Convex Fluting Stake

Graduated Dapping Block and Punch Set

Durston Complete Cupola Set-6 Punches

Stuller, Inc., a prime manufacturer and distributor of jewelry and jewelry-related products, is dedicated to providing solutions to the global jewelry industry.

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Epoxy Resin Doming Kit Domed Cputer Badge Trophy Centresufflks KeFob e

The more promotions gifts areSilicone Wristbands USSilicone Bracelets UKcustom bracelets

Swage Blocks

Ridgid-Peddinghaus Anvils (Germany)

1/4 Square Head Machine Bolts

5/16 Square Head Machine Bolts

3/8 Square Head Machine Bolts

1/8 Round (Button) Head Rivets

3/16 Round (Button) Head Rivets

1/4 Round (Button) Head Rivets

5/16 Round (Button) Head Rivets

3/8 Round (Button) Head Rivets

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Ridgid-Peddinghaus Anvils (Germany)

1/4 Square Head Machine Bolts

5/16 Square Head Machine Bolts

3/8 Square Head Machine Bolts

1/8 Round (Button) Head Rivets

3/16 Round (Button) Head Rivets

1/4 Round (Button) Head Rivets

5/16 Round (Button) Head Rivets

3/8 Round (Button) Head Rivets

Swage Blocks or forming blocks for shaping, sinking, utensils and many other uses. It is a universal bottom swage for round and squares. The perimeter often has rounds and v blocks. They are often graduated, concave spaces. Some blocks have piecing holes of different sizes and some have areas to press sheet into for special types of products. See our blacksmithtrunion swage blocknow back in stock after a several year hiatus. Some folks just use a stump to sink their bowls, ladles and spoons into. Obviously over time, sometimes a very short time, the stump just wears out. Swage blocks dont have these issues. Get many, many tools all in one place and with a lifespan of lifetimes when used correctly.

We are full time blacksmiths and use the tools and machines we sell. Give us a call if you need advice on equipment selections or setting up shop. Please visit to see our hardware.

Dba. Blacksmiths Depot100 Daniel Ridge Rd.

What makes Blacksmiths Depot different:

Trained Blacksmiths = knowledgeable staff

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Quirky Workshops 2018


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Craft and Heritage Skills Courses in the Cumbria, the Lake District

Workshops and Courses in Silver ~ Glass ~ Ceramics ~ Printing ~ Bike ~ Lampshades ~ Upcycling ~ Furniture ~ Mosaics ~ Pewter work Calligraphy ~ Landscaping ~ Dowsing

Wed 4 Thu 5 April 2018 fullSat Sun 21 22nd July fullSat Sun 24 25 November 201810am to 4.30pm ish with perhaps an earlier start on day two. 155 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

No previous experience is necessary..

All equipment and tools will be provided, though perhaps it may be a good idea to bring a sketchbook for ideas and notes. Also if appropriate, dont forget a good pair of glasses to enable close detailed work.

Create your own beautiful jewellery with Sterling Silver, Pearls and Semi-Precious Stones.

On this popular two day workshop you will use a variety equipment to make as many stunning pieces as you can under Melindas guidance. The number of items you make will vary according to your pace.

Melinda brings all the tools and equipment essential for any proper silver jewellery course.

Once people become familiar with the tools the designs start flowing. Your design will be unique; you will learn cutting, forming, doming, soldering, texturing and polishing.You can work at your own pace and make the most your workshop time.

Melinda trained for 4 years to acquire a BA Hons in Jewellery at Middlesex University plus a 2 year Diamond Mounting course at London Met. She previously exhibited at The Goldsmiths fair and won Student Designer of the Year at the British Jewellery Association Awards. She was awarded a 1st Goldsmiths Craft Council design award.

Her beautiful bespoke contemporary designs use all the traditional jewellery making techniques.A few examples of her work can be seen on her website .uk.

Some Student pieces and feedback from recent courses

Melinda Scarborough is not only a very talented gold and silver smith but an excellent teacher who is able to get complete novices (like me) to produce, in only 2 days, several pieces of jewellery which, if I saw them in a shop, Id pay good money for! We learnt lots of different techniques and everyone on the course made their own unique pieces applying what wed learnt in very different ways, it was one of the things that I was most impressed with, the freedom to make what you wanted. It goes without saying that Annie who hosts the courses provides a delightful space in which to learn and relax and the catering is always splendid.

What a fantastic course! Being a beginner did not matter at all – Melinda was very helpful and patient. You work at your own pace and everyone comes away with several unique and beautiful items of jewellery. I made a necklace and earrings which I am very proud of. Annie is a fabulous host as well, lovely lunch was a well earned break ūüôā

I made 3 necklaces on the course – all of which have been admired greatly already. One, a dragonfly, I cannot stop wearing. The course was fabulous – Melinda the tutor was brilliant (and very patient). The food and location were second to none. I would definitely go back again (childcare ie husband allowing!).

These are payable to the tutor directly on the day – depending on the quantity used and silver prices, this will vary from approx 15 upwards.

82 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

Design and make your own bespoke beautiful jewellery in a day. You can even bring along a small personal treasure to copy and make into a stunning personalised piece.

Jo will guide you through the basics to help you get the best from your silver clay.

All tools and equipment are provided, just bring your imagination!

All pieces on this page are by beginner students

Silver Clay is part of the metal clay family.

Its great for all skill levels and fires as

Fine Silver (99.9% pure) which is a higher quality that the jewellery norm of Sterling Silver (92.5%).

It is the versatility of silver clay that makes it so popular and accessible to create pieces without the need for intricate techniques or tools.

You can knead it, roll it, beat it, stretch it, texture it, fold it or anything else really.

Jo Dix runs her own jewellery business called Silver Forge in South Cumbria.

Were delighted to have her running wonderful courses for us here at Greystoke.

Materials are charged extra for this day – anything from 20 to 45 or more depending on how much is used.

Jo runs her own Silver jewellery business called Silver Forge in the South Lakes.

Theres a lot of freedom in forming jewellery from Silver Clay and there is less emphasis on the traditional jewellery making skills.

Being made of silver particles the material is not cheap by any means and can command a higher price than mined silver.

Fri Sat 6th 7th July 2018Tue Wed 25 26 Sept 20189.30 – 4.30pm each day

155 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

Come and create your own beautiful stained glass panel in two days. Youll work with coloured, clear and textured glass; learn how to handle and cut it safely and to lead up a small (approx 200mm or 8 square) panel. All glass, tools and equipment are provided.

Traditionally, stained glass windows are associated with cathedrals and churches but these days it is also used in homes for decoration. Staining glass is an ancient art of using colour and light to create atmosphere and to depict images and stories.

This course is suitable for all abilities.

Jackie Hunt is an extremely accomplished tutor of Stained Glass

with a wealth of experience behind her.

She has created some beautiful commissions across the country and we are delighted that she still comes all the way from Dorset to Greystoke for us.

Lead and lead solder are toxic substances both to handle and to breathe in the fumes.

Pregnant women are advised not to handle lead or breathe in fumes.

A health and safety briefing will be given and the use of safety equipment (provided) will be required.


Theres an additional materials charge payable directly to the tutor

of 25 to cover the cost of a panel 8 x 8.

If students choose to make larger panels this will incur an extra charge.

Fused Glass Workshops with Karen Redmayne

We are delighted that International Glass Artist Karen Redmayne from Redcurrant Glass in Forest of Bowland will be taking our Fused Glass workshops for 2018.

Sunday 29 July 2018Inspired Fused glass Lakeland FloraWed 14 NovInspired Fused Glass inc Xmas Decs

Each student will have enough glass to make quite a few items -depending on sizes.

including Christmas Decorations, jewellery, coasters,

Make your own unique festive decorations and ornamental pieces in beautiful coloured glass.

Learn about glass types, cutting, fusing, stacking and slumping and the all important CoE (Coefficient of Expansion) – vital to understand to ensure the right types of glass are successfully fused together.

You will also learn how to incorporate various inclusions using fruits, stringers, stamps, foils and other fragments.

Additional charges are 20 per student. This includes the glass you are initially provided with along with the, firing fee (back at Karens studio)and also the courier

Certain other small items are charged extra eg jewellery hangers, extra dichroics as well as any additional glass you use at cost.

If you do not wish to collect your glass later from the Cycle Cafe, it may be possible for Karen to carefully post it back to your UK home address (not inner London or islands) using a carrier perhaps from 5 but perhaps more depending on the weight.

Never buy a Door Wreath again! Make your own Festive Creation with fresh greenery and learn how easy it is to create something very professional looking.

Youll use a new large oasis ring (16 costing (8, which can be renewed with fresh oasis and decoration year after year. Spice it up with cones, berries, fruits and ribbons.

There may even be time to make more than one wreath – perhaps 2 (these make lovely presents for friends at Xmas time). For the second wreath we will show you how to add new oasis to an old frame and this will mean you will know how to re use your oasis ring for following years. The second rings are charged at 5 to 8 depending on whether they are new or recycled..

As well as supplying greenery ourselves, we will ask each person coming the day before – or early that morning – to gather a large (trolley bag size) full of mixed greenery to bring along for the course. we can then share out what we have and create the most stunning large wreaths and also great fun making them.

Below is a list of examples that we may have some supplies of – however not enough for all so we suggest you bring your own to decorate and add the final touches to the foliage if you wish – remember you will be hoping these look fresh for at least 2 weeks.

Holly with Berries attached – Seedheads

Dried Fruit -ie oranges, lemons, limes

fir cones – sprayed white silver or gold

Anything else you think may look good

We will show you how to wire up and attach any decorations that you choose and we hope you will never consider buying a made up door wreath again.

Bike Maintenance courses with Dan Richards of Lake District Cycling

Dont know how to mend a puncture? Do you wish you could service your own bike?

Dan is a qualified Cytech 3 mechanic and owner of Lake District Cycling, a cycling service provider (in association with Virgin Trains at Penrith Station, providing much needed prebookable Cycle Hire from the station platform) as well as guided rides /tours and a cycling information resource for the local areas.

Build a Bike DaySat 10 March 2018Sun 11 March 2018Sat 14 April 201810am – 4pm

To qualify for this course you must be able to at least remove a back wheel happily and change an inner tube.

Your bikes should be thoroughly cleaned before you arrive.

Each students will be provided with a bike work stand and set of tools and then will be shown how to remove all the components piece by piece.

This is not a bike renovation day, so please dont bring along a project from the garden shed!

Bikes should be in good working order without seized parts but possibly in need of a general service. Please note: It is not possible to work on bikes with Campagnolo groupsets as the tools required are quite different.

There will be a 5 materials charge which includes one cable and all oils, cleaning and greases used. If you wish to change more than one cable they will cost extra.

for LadiesSat 14 April 20185pm – 7.30pm

25 inc a cream tea half way through

This short evening course is hands-on and is designed to make sure you can become self sufficient when out on your own on a bike ride.

Starting from the very beginning with the basic parts of a bike, you will learn all about bike types and their wheels, then moving onto gears, types of brakes, what to look for regarding any servicing needs (when is it worn out ?) and of course, how to mend the dreaded puncture/ change an inner tube.

This includes removing and replacing the back wheel.

By the end youll be raring to ride off into the sunset without worrying what if I get a puncture?!

Steve points out to the group the parts he is most impressed with- the choice of stone is everything!

Dry Stone Walling is very physically demanding, at times the ground is unsafe, uneven and rocky.

Stones are heavy, unwieldy and need lifting to around 3 or 4 ft.

Only those who are fit to participate should sign up.

There will be a safety briefing and you will be asked to sign a disclaimer before the day.

Those with previous or existing back problems or who are pregnant should not consider this day.

We are collecting names of students interested in this class and once sufficient numbers we will email you with a date pleasedo let us know herethat you are waiting.

Learn this age old skill of creating a solid stone wall without the use of any cement or mortar. Steve (the existing & many times World Champion Dry Stone Waller) will guide you through the setting out & various stages of wall construction. He spends a lot of time in America working with Andy Goldsworthy and will have a lot of knowledge and stories to share. This course is suitable for all abilites.

Please bring safety goggles, suitable gloves and safety boots.

Hands-On Cobbling Day with Adam Beeston

We are currently gathering interested students and when we have enough we will try to find a suitable

workshop date for 2018 – please regsiter your interest.

Join Adam Beeston here for a day of cobbling.

Adam is very experienced in both teaching and cobbling. This is a Hands On day enabling you to learn the skills associated with tradtiional methods of laying cobbles (before the days of cement and vibrating compactors!) This will be a relatively peaceful day with your square metre of ground in front of you and the materials and expertise to learn this age old traditional skill.

You will leave with a good knowledge of the use of cobbles in hard landscaping, the different layers required – selecting the correct materials and learning the skill of locking the cobbles together to form a hard and durable surface

Adam is Head of Hard Landscaping in the Horticulture Dept at local Newton Rigg College.

He also works on private commissions and over the years has helped with the construction of several prize winning Chelsea Show Gardens.

We are collecting names of students interested in this class and once sufficient numbers we will email you with a date.

Please dolet us know herethat you are waiting.

Cobbling an be physically demanding, sometime the stones are quite large and it is possible that at times the ground is unsafe and uneven.

Please bring safety goggles, suitable gloves and soft wooden or rubber mallet and even a kneeler or knee pads.

Friday 10 November 2017Sun 1st July 2018Tue 20th Nov 201810am – 4pm

75 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

This day is suitable for all abilities

Much of Gwens work is defined by the unique incorporation of textile pattern into her porcelain, making her work so unique and admired.

Gwen will start the day by introducing you to porcelain clay, a beautiful material to work with; you are able to make quite fine pots as a complete beginner. You will learn how to roll the clay to a useable thickness, then roll lace patterns of your choice into the clay. Once leather hard you will construct a slab pot, which may be a vase, or tea light. These pots may then be further embellished with clay buttons or lace, all of which Gwen will skillfully show you how to do. A coloured slip may be added at this stage to show up the texture in the lace patterns. Scraps of embellished clay may be made into buttons or jewellery.

If you have a particular piece of lace or textured fabric that you would like to incorporte into the vase then do bring it along. Gwen will advise if it is suitable for using, maybe you have a piece of lace from your wedding dress/veil you would like to immortalise in a vase. A lovely course for mother and daughter to come to together.

There will be an additional cost for materials used (including both clay and 2 firings of the clay) of 10, payable to the tutor on the day. You should be able to make at least 2 vases and 2 tea lights in a day and use the remaining clay to make some small delicate decorations.

Your pieces can be detailed in white or a slip or lustre added to highlight the textures that you have incorporated. Adding a lustre might incur an extra firing charge.

The vases can be posted if you are not local for 10 or they can be collected from Brougham Hall or the Cafe

Applique Relief Tiles in Porcelainwith Gwen BainbridgeThu 12 April 2018Fri 3rd August 201810am – 4pm

A day with this very talented ceramics artist to create a tile up to A4 size or a series of three smaller tiles (a tryptych) or individual pieces to suit your need.

Using beautiful cutters and stamps (bring your own if you have) and incorporating Gwens own signature use of textures and patterns you will learn how to create your own beautiful designs whether drawn freehand, layered, pressed or imprinted, and built up in relief for a lovely effect.

You might to incorporate pressed flowers and leaves shapes(work best when dried and flat) . Pick and press your flowers to bring carefully on the day within a book. Lavender and daisy, ivy leaves, wild strawberry, small leaved geranium all work well.

The materials charge for this to include the usual firing which will be 10 payable to Gwen.

Further porcelain will be available at cost pro rata.

(morning course on these days are stencilled lampshades-please see here)

Bring your own materialand let Sonja show you how to make a perfect hand rolled drum lampshade. Sonja will have some lovely materials for sale too. Please let us know if you require a different size shade kit.

Having spent several years working as a repeat pattern designer with the high end textile printers she left London to return to her home county of Yorkshire to start her own pattern design company. Since 2009 Georgia Wilkinson Designs has been offering innovative, fresh and unique hand printed textiles operating out of a cricket pavillion on her parents farm and her products are sold in shops throughout the UK as well as online. Her designs are fun, bright and uplifting with her fabric available by the metre or alternatively lovingly transformed into beautiful lampshades and cushions ready for your home.

Georgia will arrive with all the tools and equipment needed and during this short course you will have fun creating and completing a lovely drum lampshade to take home.

Georgia will bring a selection of her wonderful fresh fabrics from her Yorkshire studio and students can choose these for their lampshades or they can bring their own fabric.

The course price includes everything required to make a smaller shade if you bring your own fabric. If you choose larger options or select some of Georgias fabric, these will be charged extra.

Hot drinks and scones will be served mid way through the course

There will be an additional materials charge of between 10 and 15 payable to Georgia on the day.

Over first coffees, Georgia will tell you a little about her self and explain what is possible over the day, with hints and tips for your design in mind suitable for a repeat pattern.

Once your design is finalised on paper you will learn to make block prints using a variety of mixed media tools and you will practise on paper before turning and printing up the cotton panama fabric she supplies.

The material for the lampshade will be then cured and hand rolled and carefully finished into a lampshade.

A further pieces of fabric may be printed for a matching cushion cover front to take home and make a cushion You can choose to make either a small table lamp shade or a larger pendant ceiling shade – Georgia will advise on print types according to shade sizes.

Courses led by expert of design and thrift ..award winning tutor Sonja Tilleard of White and Green home interiors in Cockermouth.

Sonja has acquired both considerable knowledge and extensive training over the years of running her unique home interiors business, employing favourite brands

such as Annie Sloane Chalk Paints, Farrow and Ball along with stencils, rollers, gilded finishes, waxes and offering hints and tips galore!

75 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

To begin under Sonjas guidance and working on simple boards you will learn the various techniques of using chalk paints including distressing and waxing techniques that will be explained, shown and practised.

Students can then work on their own small piece of furniture such as a picture frame or a small stool, chair, tiny table etc and renovate it after lunch using the learnt techniques. The brilliant thing about Chalk Paint is you dont need to do much , if any, prep to the surface (no sanding etc) – one can just paint over existing finishes. Chalk paint is a great leveller.

Sonja will bring all the materials specialist brushes, paints and waxes required and a materials charge will be made per person – possibly around 5-10 payable directly to the tutor depending on the size of each piece.

Sonja will bring various fabrics for you to choose from and a variety of stencils for you to use in create a variety of professional patterns in your chosen colours – learning & perfecting the finer points of stencilling.

Included in the cost of the course is a 30cm shade kit.Please contact us if you wish to make two smaller matching shades andSonja will advise.

The morning stencilling course on these dates is followed in the afternoon by the

non-stencilling equivilant with Sonja of . .

using some of your favourite fabric afternoon.

We can organise this day for a bespoke group

– Hen parties etc .Please get in touch

Combining the patterned paint roller techniques used on a separate course you will start the day by printing a piece of fabric which will be used to make a drum lampshade.

Using chalk paint, you will also paint & wax a lamp base to co-ordinate with your fabric.

By the end of the class you will take home a fully pat tested lamp unique to you – perfect for your house and amazingly unique as a special present for someone else.

There will be a materials charge of approx 35 for the complete lamp kit or similar, depending on the sizes chosen.

Cyanotype Printing in Sunshine with Kim Tillyer

75 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

Cyanotype printing is an early form of photography, distinctive for its rich blue colouring and the ethereal quality of the images.

The prints are traditionally exposed using sunlight and were originally adopted by botanists to accurately capture the silhouette of the plants they studied.

During this fascinating day with Kim you will learn about the history and technical process of cyanotype and proceed to coat papers and/or fabrics to create unique prints using found objects from the garden, stencils or prepared negatives and watch as the sunlight (or special light if its cloudy)magically develops your works of art.The results are different every time so each print is a unique monotype.

Kim graduated from Cleveland College of Art with first class honours in Textiles and Surface Design and is an artist working in Newlands Valley near Keswick. Her work incorporates cyanotype, drawing and stitch.

Visitfor more images and information.

The course is suitable for adults of all abilities and will take place in the barn although part of the process will involve use of an outside tap and rinsing area which will be under cover if the weather is bad.

Materials will be extra on the day depending on how much you use – somewhere between 5 and 10 payable to the tutor directly.

This course is suitable for all abilities.

Whilst we are still hoping to receive an autumn date from Janet, we have managed to find another very talented Lino cut tutor (not reduction) to take a course at Greystoke in July

Please make sure you have ticked printing on the Keep me Posted link

at top of this web page. We will email you when her dates appear – thank you

85 inc a lovely 2 course lunch, fresh coffees and cream tea

We are delighted that Janet has agreed to travel all the way from her Northumberland home & print studio to take her wonderful Linocut courses at Greystoke.

Her style, love of garden, flora and landscape fit perfectly and hopefully well be holding at least one of her courses in the garden!

Janet Dickson is a printmaker whose work interprets pattern and design in the garden and landscape, creating, lithographs and monotypes as well as her multilayered linocuts.

Many of Janets prints begin life in her sketchbooks, from drawings made on location.

I am inspired by plants and natural forms, as a gardener and a printmaker – from their colour and the detail of their structure to the visual impact they have on their surroundings.

The garden, therefore, is one of my key subjects, but colour, structure and pattern in landscape draws me too. Drawing underpins my work – it is where many of my prints begin and the processes I choose allow me to incorporate drawing in some form or other.

The examples of work you see here embody my practice.

Please bring an apron and wear non precious clothes – printing is messy and the ink stains.

There will be a materials ch

es -Swage Block How-To

The block is used to support work for punching and drifting where the hardy hole or pritchel hole of the anvil is not suitable.

This is best done on a heavy stand with open bottom. It is helpful to have a sand box under the stand to catch loose drifts and punches preventing damage to them.

Upsets, once started unsupported are more efficiently finished while supported in a suitable hole in the block. If a suitable sized hole is not available then a bolster plate can be used.

A set of bolster plates with fine increment holes with the minimum clearance (about 1/32) for the sizes is a fine swage block accessory that can also be used with the anvil.

Many fasteners have special shoulders, squares such as on carriage bolts, tapers for plow bolts and flat head screws, and cylindrical shoulders for various purposes. These are made with a smith-made tool, a bolster plate. Bolster plates are often made with a variety of heads for one sized shank.

When upsetting a place in the middle of a bar it is often difficult to support the bar. A heavy swage block resting on an anvil, heavy bench, floor or on a stand can useful for this purpose. In this case the block is only helping hold the work and is something to push against to keep the bar straight as it tried to bend at the upset.

For large mid-bar upsets or formed upsets a bolster with a hemispherical or conical depression can give better control.

Where the shape of the shoulder is suitable to the shape of the block the upset can be done directly against the block once it has been started.

6. Upsetting in Special Upsetting Hole:

The upsetting hole is a new feature suggested by Josh Greenwood in 1999 and used by John Newman on hisartist blacksmith block.

The upsetting hole prevents the bar from moving around while striking the cool end and the taper of the hole helps produce a well centered upset.

The primary purpose for the edge grooves is finish swaging while using a top swage. The alternative to a swage block is a dozen or more bottom swages to fit the anvil. The block is more economical and it does not suffer from shanks that do not fit when an anvil is replaced.

The standard grooves on a block can be used to forge half rounds, 90 and 60 triangles and half hexes. Special blocks often have octagons (for rifle barrels), half ovals and rectangular grooves.

It is helpful for this purpose to have large radiused edges on the starting side of the block.

Starting with round stock of the same cross sectional area as the finished shape requires the least work when making odd sections.

The holes are useful for supporting a bar while making a bend in round, square or rectangular bar.

A block securly attached to the bed or tailgate of a truck can be very useful in making field bends such as for adjusting a railing to fit.

A block resting on the ground can also be threaded onto a long bar and the leverage of the bar and the block together can be applied for the same purpose.

Bar can be hammered hot or cold in the larger external radii of a block. This is very handy for quick cold work in stock up to 1/2 (13mm).

Blocks with large radii were designed for wheelwrights to start bends in tires prior to going to a roll bender, dress welds and take kinks out of wheels. Any large curve can be dressed on these surfaces.

11. Edge bending sheet and thin plate.:

This is a task often done in a special block. Vs in larger swage blocks substitute for this purpose.

U shapes from sheet metal beads up to wood workers gouges and round stock tongs can be made within the range of the block. A handled or hand held fuller or a piece of round stock the proper size is used to form the shape in the groove.

Dishing can be performed over the holes in the block. The large holes that are almost useless for other purposes should have large smooth edge radii for dishing.

Modern smiths often make tools for doing this from sections of pipe welding them to a flange or a flange and shank to fit a hardy hole.

14. Dishing over Special Depressions:

One of the earliest uses of blocks was dishing of ladles and spoons. Larger depressions are useful for armours to make a helm. Most raising is started with a dishing operation but not too much as this thins the metal. Artist blacksmiths use these depressions for everything from the curvature of leaves to bodies of animals.

Large radii on the edges of the depression reduce maring or cutting of the work.

15. Substitute Hardy Hole or Stake Plate :

Many square shanked blacksmiths, armourers and tinsmiths tools will fit the square holes of an industrial swage block. Tapered shanks should only be used in blocks with tapered holes specifically made for them.

Using dogs the industrial swage block can substitute for a small weld platten for bending and supporting work.

16. Support for rounds and squares on edge :

When starting a chisel cut on the corner of a bar a swage block is very handy. The same applies for incising, stamping or splitting rounds that tend to roll away otherwise.

Hex grooves will also support rounds quite well for this purpose and tend to lock them in place if a proper fit.

17. Rivet Heading and Dressing Spheres :

Large and small blocks including artist blacksmith blocks and dapping blocks have various hemispherical depressions that can be used for a number of things. Support for rivet heading is a common task replacing a rivet set or used in conjunction with a rivet set. The same depression can be used to form or dress a forged rivet head.

Small hemispherical depressions for rivet heading can be added to existing blocks using a ball end mill the way they are formed in dapping blocks.

These instructions are for no particular block as most blocks do not have all the features used above on one block.

Technical Articles

Four Basic Keys to Successful Stone Selection

Choosing the Right Stone for the Job

Living With Stone – Around the Pool

Stability Problems with Natural Stone Tiles

Stone as a Building Material (with Focus on Indian Building Stone)

Slip Resistance – Accidents Never Happen!

Stone in the Built Environment – Commercial Lobby Floors

Stone in the Built Environment- External Paving

A Guide to Specifying Limestone Tiles

Stability Problems with Natural Stone Tiles

Since 2007 the tile market has seen a significant growth in the sale and usage of tiles made from quarried rocks (senso latto natural stone). In particular the market has seen a gradual increase in the size of the tiles with a length of 600 to 900mm long becoming common. Such dimensions create an issue for adhesive dead loading, but another more critical set of problems have appeared, thermal movements and moisture stability.

In this paper we will examine some of the issues related to thermal and moisture stability, using examples of some natural rock tiles that Ardex has seen in the last few years.

The market is familiar with the peculiarities of some types of rock used for tile and dimension stone. In particular, the problems of warping, grout or silicone picture framing and adhesive show through for marble and limestone, but also the dimensional instability of so-called green marble (senso stricto Serpentinite and Blue Schist) are well known to the industry.

Figure 1. Adhesive show through on spot fixed limestone tiles.

Figure 2. Picture framing on marble tiles either due to adhesive or grout related moisture problems.

These problems can be minimised by the correct usage of products for fixing the tiles and finishing the installation. In particular the use of non-water based or specialised adhesives and grout eliminate moisture effects for porous and sensitive tiles.

Neutral cure silicones eliminate the Acetic Acid attack on carbonate rocks, but these must also not contain mobile solvent or low molecular weight polymer phases that can migrate and create problems as well.

We can ask, why are these issues being problematic now? It is because some of these stones do not show the problem when used as ashlars, it is only when the block is cut into thin section slabs for use as tiles that the issue becomes evident. Also the use of thinner stone and the mesh backing embedded in resins create other issues.

The current trend towards cheaper imported tiles, and away from locally quarried quality tiles or higher market end European sourced dimension stone, but in particular black and dark colours, has led to a number of other unexpected problems with rock tiles.

Ardex has seen a range of unusual stability issues from tiles made with imported types of stone. These problems include temperature related warping, moisture related warping and also weathering of unstable minerals and components. Darker colours can create problems with substrate stability, and also premature ageing and stress fatiguing of the adhesive.

The movement problems can be either growth overall due to expansion through the entire tile body, or more commonly differential movements due to one side of the tile being exposed only. The former produces expansion and peaking at the joints, and the latter cupping/doming and peaking/down curling at the edges and corners of the tiles. Both effects create adhesive de-bonding and loose tiles.

For discussion of movements, it is important to recognise the three dimensional quality of these changes. Traditional moisture movement testing of rock tiles is done in the horizontal X (length) and Y (width) directions with fully saturated samples, but less commonly in the Z direction (vertical axis = tile thickness changes or deflections). Movements in X and Y produce overall growth and shrinkage, whereas Z axis movements create either vertical slight vertical expansion of the tile, or larger bowing and cupping movement due to differentials.

Observing Z axis deflection in a tiled surface using a straight edge

Figure 4. Schematic diagrams showing the differential movement effects observe in natural stone tiles. The upper face expansion can also occur with moisture sensitive tiles exposed to ponding rain water.

Traditional ashlar blocks are thick and heavy tiles, used for structural as well as their decorative properties. Such large formats had their own kind of stability, even when made from suspect rock types. The reason being, that the thicker tiles are more resilient to deformation and take longer to be affected by either moisture or thermal effects. However, such large tiles are hard to fix, hard to transport and require specialised constructions. As a result the same types of rocks are being cut into thinner slices, for example from 10-40mm thick, with a common thickness of 12-15mm. The result of this is to remove the inertia to movement that thicker rock has provides, allowing more rapid and proportionally larger movements to occur. The thinner tiles are more quickly affected by both and thermal effects.

Rocks have relatively low thermal coefficients and so act somewhat as insulators. Where the sun falls onto the tile surface, be it outside, or through a large window, the tile surface is heated more rapidly than the tile body. This effect is far more pronounced on dark coloured tiles which are highly effective at absorbing radiant energy. Ardex has measured surface temperatures on dark coloured tiles exposed to the sun slightly in excess of 600C on warm but not excessively hot days with air temperatures around 30-320C. The high surface temperature results in the upper layers of the tile expanding relative to the back, and producing differential movement in the tile (this occurs until the tile heats all the way through, which may not occur for thick tiles in the time exposed during the diurnal period). This creates high tensile strains in the centre of the tile and increasing compression around the edges. Each time the tile is exposed it heats up and expands, but when no longer exposed then cools down and contracts. This cycle contains a degree of time lag hysteresis and so the tile does not exactly go back to its initial state before the next cycle.

This cyclic effect can, over time, stress fatigue adhesives. If it occurs before the tile adhesive has developed high strength (for example less than 24-48hrs old), the adhesive can shear cohesively and the tile becomes drummy. If the rock is strong enough, that is has a high compressive strength, but more critically a high E-modulus, then combined with large Z direction movements, it can exert very high strains that exceed the nominal tensile strength of most cement based adhesives and cause cohesive failure within the adhesive. (The same effect occurs with moisture movement as well).

This description is the normal expected deformation for heated tiles with doming of the tile as the upper face expands. However, Ardex has also seen the inverse case occur with some tiles where the edges curl upwards. The reason for this is not clear, but in the worst case seen to date, the tiles deformed purely due to heated air temperatures and not direct sun exposure.

Where the tiles are exposed all day to the sun (i.e. E-N-W walls) the tiles will eventually heat through and start to have effects on the underlying materials. Depending on the day time temperature and the darkness of the colour, the temperature rise may exceed the nominal 700C service temperature for the adhesive. It can also produce durability issues with the substrate over time as well and it fibre-cement manufacturers for one, do not recommend external tiling onto their sheets.  This is in part a loading issue, but also a weathering issue which high temperatures accelerate.

These two contour maps show the measured deflections in a so-called basalt rock tile 900x450x25mm thick exposed to the sun at Ardexs laboratory in Sydney during March 2009. The vertical Z axis deflections are defined by the contours and colour changes. It can be seen that this tile displayed a range of movement in excess of 2.5mm during the course of the days sun exposure. This is sufficient to strain adhesive beds and create drummy tiles and lipping issues.

There are only two ways to get around this type of problem, either select light colour rock types that do not heat up as severely, or rocks that do not display significant thermal movements. Unfortunately the latter is not necessarily easily determined without testing, and is likely outside the scope of the suppliers range of quality control properties. The former, using light colours, has advantages for reducing thermal cyclic strains on the underlying materials, and would also no doubt assist in the building thermal efficiency in terms of reduced requirements for cooling. Also, dark coloured paving surfaces can create unpleasant problems for pedestrians in summer.

Figure 5. Vertical (Z axis) deflection contour maps for a thermally unstable stone tile exposed to direct sunlight. The contour measurements are in mm. This tile produced unacceptable deflections on a job site in hot weather during the summer months in 2008-09. As can be seen, there was a significant difference in the tile flatness between cool and hot conditions with the tile dishing by 2mm.

Movement in stone tiles is a function of the rocks porosity, together with the stability of the constituent minerals and also the matrix. The term matrix really refers more to sedimentary rocks than crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks and is the binder that holds the particles together. That being said, fine grained volcanic igneous rocks can be composed of a background matrix and crystals as well, and finer grain metamorphic rocks can also display this texture.

The rock porosity is a measure of the amount of pores within the rock structure which allows the penetration of water. Non-porous or tight rocks do not allow the penetration of water and are more resistant to moisture related issues. The tightness is a function of the interlocking boundaries of the mineral crystals that make up the rock. Most crystalline plutonic igneous and metamorphic rocks are considered tight, with low porosity, however volcanic equivalents are often highly porous. Sedimentary rocks such as sandstone are also porous, and are well recognised as conduits for artesian water supplies, and also underground oil reservoirs. Limestones such as travertine and caliche are also highly porous.

There are two issues with porosity, the first is that highly porous rock tiles can easily stain or discolour, and the second is that high porosity can lead to dimensional stability problems. With staining and marking, this can either be a permanent or temporary effect. Temporary marking is purely due to the rock being wet, and is a result of moisture in the adhesive, or possibly the substrate. Permanent staining is either due to changes in the rock itself due to the water, or the rock capturing water mobile salts or polymer phases and producing a physical or chemical alteration.

The matrix of sedimentary rocks is usually very fine grained minerals, down to silt or clay size (these are particle size names and range from 0.06 to 63m), and the composition can vary widely. The most common matrices are the actual clay minerals (i.e. kaolin), lime mud, re-deposited silica and in the case of volcanic rocks devitrified glass. The fine grained matrices tend to display a similar affinity for absorbing water which either produces a physical appearance change (staining), or swelling and dimension change with warping. The higher the amount of matrix, the more unstable a rock is likely to be.

These problems do not appear to be a major issue for sandstones bonded with re­deposited silica. The most heavily affected rocks are things such as fine grained sandstone (with clay or fine lime matrices), muddy limestone (travertine etc,) and some light coloured volcanic rocks. Slate, whilst a metamorphic rock can also display this effect because it is composed of aligned clay minerals.

The fine grained matrix absorbs moisture from the adhesive and warps upwards, whilst others change colour and darken, usually in patches producing a blotchy light-dark appearance (see Figs.1 & 2). In the case of crystalline marble, the amount of matrix is minimal or non-existent and the effects that occur with these rock tiles are usually show through or shading due to translucence.

Warping is a differential effect with the rock expanding on the wet side relative to dry side. Where the tile is not bonded, the warping normally disappears when it dries out or conversely when it is fully saturated. The moisture source that affects the base side can be from the substrate or adhesive, but also rain and ponded water can affect the upper face as well (see Fig.4).

A deformable free tile is one thing, but when the tile is glued down that is a different problem. Where the tile bottom contacts a water based adhesive (or wet substrate), the surface can begin to expand and the tile starts to warp into a dish. When the adhesive is soft it could accommodate this movement, provided the relaxation occurs before the adhesive hardens (unless it is so great that it cohesively fails the soft adhesive). However, the more common situation is the adhesive dries and has developed a degree of cure before the tile stabilises. This can either lead to compressive stress being applied to the adhesive around the tile perimeter, or excessive tensile strain being applied to the tile centre, cohesively shearing it with resultant drumminess. (Rain onto an unstable tile produces the reverse effect with doming of the tile in centre and down curling at the edges, but results in the same type of ultimate failure).

Figure 6. A three dimensional representation of the upper surface of a warped slate tile. This X-Y-Z plot represents movements measured after 7 hours exposure to moisture on one side of the tile. This particular tile failed on a job site due to rain related movements.

The solutions to using natural stone tiles made from unstable rock types are not simple. Ideally such rocks should not be quarried, but realistically that is not commercially going to happen. This means that work around solutions are required, for example using specialised adhesives when these tiles are encountered, but in some cases not using them at all and selecting something else for the job is more appropriate.

In terms of thermal effects, tiles with light colours will not develop such high temperatures and hence reduce potential movements. However, there is no quick check when purchasing these tiles to determine whether they will move, or simply just get hot and sit there.

Moisture sensitive types can usually be identified by a careful examination of the tile for porosity and matrix types, but some types such as limestone and marble are well recognised moisture sensitive types.

Of late, one suggested solution for moisture related problems is to use a stone sealer on all sides, however this requires careful selection of the sealer since many appear to interfere with the adhesive bond leading to later failures. Again, this is something that can only be identified by testing so is not a simple thing to do in the field. Sealing does not do anything about thermal problems.

Some adhesive based solutions to the problem of unstable stone tiles are:

1.Use hybrid systems where the tile back is coated with a lower viscosity 100% solids epoxy which whilst wet is laid into a high strength cement based adhesive bed (Ardex Abapoxy used with Ardex Optima, Abaflex, STS8 or X77).

2.Use high strength non-water based adhesives (e.g. Ardex WA and WA100 epoxy)

3.Use rapid cure cement based systems which develop a high proportion of their tensile strength in a short space of time (Ardex Quickbond +/-Abalastic)

4.Use specialised adhesives that do not allow free water to penetrate the tile surface before they dry. Such adhesives also develop rapid cure as well providing high strength rapidly (Ardex S16 for internal locations).

Finishing also requires the use of specialised grouts (Ardex MG, Ardex Abapoxy grout or Ardex WA Epoxy grout) and also specifically designed sealants (Ardex ST Silicone) to prevent picture framing.

Ultimately though, the old customer protection maxim, caveat emptor needs to apply when selecting natural stone tiles for any external or critical job.

For further assistance on assessing dimensional stability of stone:.

Reproduced with kind permission of Ardex Australia (Technical Bulletin TP005.002)

This Technical Bulletin provides guideline information only and is not intended to be interpreted as a general specification for the application/installation of the products described. Since each project potentially differs in exposure/condition specific recommendations may vary from the information contained herein. For recommendations for specific applications/installations contact your nearest Ardex Australia Office.

The information presented in this Technical Bulletin is to the best of our knowledge true and accurate. No warranty is implied or given as to its completeness or accuracy in describing the performance or suitability of a product for a particular application. Users are asked to check that the literature in their possession is the latest issue.

ArdexNSW 02 9851 9100, QLD 07 3817 6000, VIC 03 9308 9255, SA/NT 08 8268 2511, WA 08 9256 8600 New Zealand (Christchurch)  64 3384 3029 Web:

Covell DVDs

In this information-packed dvd, Ron Covell shows dozens of ways to work with tubing. From the simplest cutting to the most complicated mitering, from bending by hand to using a professional tube bending machine, he shows how to make tubing structures for any application, with outstanding close-up shots of all the important details.

Covers the basic processes used for TIG welding, covering proper machine setup, joint preparation, electrode selection & preparation, torch technique, and perhaps most importantly, what to check for when things go wrong! Rons thoughtful description, coupled with close-up photography makes the seemingly difficult process of TIG welding easy to…

Watch Ron Covell make traditional modifications on two different grille shells; he chops a 1932 Ford shell 2.5 inches, and narrows a 1929 shell 5 inches. Ron shows how to be creative with the layout of the cuts and how to make each cut with precision. Youll learn the importance of proper joint preparation, and youll see in-depth treatment of tack…

Rons first dvd, now considered a classic. Watch Ron go through every step of making a track roadster nose, demonstrating techniques suitable for making virtually any body panel. He starts with a station buck defining the shape, shows clearly how the patterns are made, then shapes each piece and joins them together.

What do you do if youve a car with a fender that is damaged beyond repair, or missing? Ron shows how to use the opposite fender to design a buck, pointing out the features required to make a new fender that perfectly mirrors the model. This is a fascinating, in-depth look at the start-to-finish construction of a very challenging project, 36 Ford…

Through his projects, books, workshops, instructional dvds and the tools he designed, Ron has put thousands of people on the path to becoming better metalworkers. This dvd features rare interviews with his family, students and colleagues as well as a fascinating interview with Ron himself, where he traces his steps to becoming leader in the industry

Planishing hammers are a real workhorse of metal shaping process. They are unexcelled for flattening welds, working in constricted areas, and stretching flanges. Ron demonstrates the basic procedures for using these machines, including proper die selection and operator technique, and he shows their use on both steel and aluminium panels

MIG Welding is widely used by professionals and amateurs alike, but few people really understand how each of the variables affect the finished weld. This program can be easily understood by a beginner, but it covers information even seasoned professionals can learn from. Ron goes through the entire welding process step-by-step, and gives clear…

Ron works over the buck to build the back half of the body – the turtledeck. This is a deceptively difficult project, and Ron shows how to do the layout and fabrication with a wide array of tools, and youll learn about doming, flanging, beading, stretching, shrinking, shaping reverse curves, welding, and many other advanced metalworking…

The first step in many large metalshaping projects is building a buck which is¬†a pattern or form that captures all of the key dimensions, contours and details of an object in three-dimension.¬†Youll learn a fast way to use sheetmetal angles to model large complicated shapes with accuracy and get insight into working through the challenges of each…

In this two-part dvd, Ron Covell goes through the process of making 2 very different motorcycle gas tanks.  Part 1 shows a chopper style tank being made from steel and part 2 shows a comma-shapped tank being made from aluminium. Each step is clearly detailed and techniques shows can be used to make tanks of any shape.

Craig Naff is one of the top metalworkers in the USA, with milestone projects such as Cadzilla, The Smoothster, SmoothNess, and The Golden Submarine to his credit. Craig demonstrates the fastest techniques known for shaping custom sheet metal panels and makes the two most difficult sections of a 1932 Ford front fender.

Ron Covell and Ron Fournier team up to teach you all about the hammerforming process. Form blocks are easy to make, and they enable you to create parts with the accuracy of die-stamped originals. Ten different hammer-forming operations are shown, from a simple tank top to a beautiful rolled edge detail on a complicated pontoon fender for a Bugatti.

Ron Covell brings his signature easy-to-follow style to using the English Wheel, a machine notoriusly difficult for beginners to figure out. Starting with the machines history and a clear explanation of the principles that enable the machine to move metal, Ron shows the basic tracking patterns that are used to shape panels of various sizes and…

Inspired by the Rod & Custom Dream Truck Ron Covell and Joe McGlynn radically rework a 56 Studebaker pickup – giving it a 4 chop, a 6 section, and apie-cutting the hood. Every step is shown up close with clear detail and the ongoing commentry brings out many of the fine points of the work.

See a chopper frame built before your eyes! Ron Covell goes through the entire process, starting with an overview of frame design, explaining the concepts of rake, trail, and stretch.He covers the use of chassis jigs, then goes on to show how to bend and fit tubing to create a chopper frame to match any design. Rons clear and detailed explanations…

Beading machines are one of the most widely-used tools for both amateur and professional metalworkers. These machines can quickly and accurately make beads, steps, grooves, flanges, curls, and many other shapes in sheetmetal panels.

Probably the most comprehensive metalworking dvd to date, and historically our bestseller! Ron thoroughly demonstrates the fundamentals of hammer and dolly technique, and shows how to do high level metal-work that requires no filler.¬†Youll see great coverage of heat shrinking, hole filling, metal finishing, wired edge repair, rust repair and TIG…

This program covers many advanced topics in TIG welding, including welding chrome moly steel, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, bronze, copper, and titanium. Youll also learn how to weld castings made from aluminum, magnesium, and bronze.¬†Rons clear and detailed instructions are easy to follow, and the striking close-up photography shows you…

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