Tag Archives: doming machine south africa

Classification

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, Powai, Bombay

This webpage is a condensed and modified version of the paper:Sheth, H.C., Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs): Definition, recommended terminology, and a hierarchical classification, Earth-Science Reviews 85 (2007) 117124.

Click here for Discussion of this page

Click here for a counter proposal Proposed Revision to Large Igneous Province Classification by Bryan & Ernst.

The termLarge Igneous Province(LIP) has been widely applied to large flood basalt provinces (e.g., Deccan), and the termSilicic Large Igneous Province(SLIP) to volcanic provinces of dominantly felsic composition (e.g., Whitsunday, Australia). Neither of these terms has been applied to the large granitic batholiths of the world to which both are perfectly applicable. LIP has also not been applied to broad areas of contemporaneous magmatism and sizeable layered mafic intrusions. I suggest use of the term LIP only in its broad sense and propose a minimum area of 50,000 km2for a LIP.

I present a simple hierarchical classification of LIPs that is independent of composition, tectonic setting, or emplacement mechanism. I suggest that volcanic provinces such as the Deccan Traps and Whitsunday (Australia) be calledLarge Volcanic Provinces(LVPs), and large mafic intrusions, dyke swarms, and other intrusive provinces be calledLarge Plutonic Provinces(LPPs). LVPs and LPPs together cover all large igneous provinces (LIPs), having felsic to ultramafic compositions of sub-alkalic and alkalic lineages, emplaced in continental and oceanic settings.

The intrusive equivalent of LRPs are theLarge Granitic Provinces(LGPs) (e.g., the Andean batholiths), but a corresponding term for intrusive equivalents of LBPs is not necessary or warranted. The largest LBP, and LIP, is neither the Ontong Java, the Siberian Traps, or the Central Atlantic Province, but simply the ocean floor.

What is a Large Igneous Province (LIP)?

Fig. 1. A view of the spectacular, 1-km-thick exposed section through the Deccan flood basalts at Mahabaleshwar. Photo: Hetu Sheth, December 2005.

implies a province of igneous origin that is large. Clearly, the term LIP should cover large volcanic and intrusive igneous provinces, of whatever emplacement mechanism and composition. However, the term LIP has been applied to and used only for flood basalt provinces that have been the subject of great interest and extensive research recently (

, 2005; see They represent the eruption of enormous volumes of mantle-derived magma on the Earths surface in relatively short time periods. These provinces (

,Deccan, Fig. 1, andSiberian Traps) are unquestionably LIPs in the broadest sense of the term. However, large-volume felsic provinces such as the Sierra Madre Occidental inMexicoare also LIPs, as are the huge granodioritic batholiths of the world, such as those of Tibet-Himalaya, western North America, or the Andes (Fig. 2), and the largest mafic layered intrusions such as the Bushveld Intrusion. Indeed, continental rift zones such as the Rio Grande Rift and the Cameroon Line are LIPs. None of these involve flood basalts.

Coffin & Eldholm(1992, 1993, 1994) were amongst the first to use the term LIP in the current restrictive sense. They defined LIPs as massive crustal emplacements of predominantly mafic (Mg and Fe rich) extrusive and intrusive rock which originate via processes other than normal seafloor spreading [and] include continental flood basalts, volcanic passive margins, oceanic plateaus, submarine ridges, seamount groups and ocean basin flood basalts. This cannot be a suitable definition of LIP since it excludes most types of LIPs. However, the term LIP continues to be used in this restrictive sense (Ernst et al., 2005;Saunders, 2005; I suggest that the term LIP be retained but in its broadest sense, but that new, necessary terms be introduced for various categories of LIP.

The definition of large is clearly subjective and flexible, and I suggest here 50,000 km2as the lower limit for LIPs (see below). Volume would be a better size parameter than area, but area is usually easier to measure. Most LIPs are much larger than 50,000 km2. TheDeccan, for example, covers 0.5 million km2of western-central India today and has an estimated original extent of 1.5 million km2(Wadia, 1975). The Siberian province is vastly larger (Reichow et al., 2002). The smaller of the flood basalt provinces, such as the Emeishan province (~250,000 km2;He et al., 2003) and theColumbia River province(~164,000 km2;Hooper, 1988; Ed: See also comment onColumbia River Province size), are also well above the lower size threshold I suggest.

Fig. 2 (at left). A llama overlooks the ruins of Machu Picchu, situated at 2500 m above sea level in the Peruvian batholith, a felsic large igneous province. Photo: Hetu Sheth, November 2001.

Large Volcanic Provinces (LVPs) and Large Plutonic Provinces (LPPs)

Just as there are large mafic volcanic provinces as exemplified by theDeccanand theColumbia River Basalts, there are large felsic volcanic provinces dominated by highly evolved (broadly rhyolitic) lavas. Several such provinces (the so-calledSLIPs) are described byBryan et al.(2000, 2002;SLIPs webpage) and include the early Cretaceous Whitsunday province and the Sierra Madre Occidental. There also are large volcanic provinces dominated by andesite, and others that comprise subequal volumes of basaltic and rhyolitic lavas. For all these volcanic provinces, of whatever composition, I propose the termLarge Volcanic Provinces (LVPs). Obviously, all LVPs are LIPs, but all LIPs are not LVPs.

After Pluto, the Roman god of the underworld, I suggest the termLarge Plutonic Provinces (LPPs)for all intrusive provinces meeting the size requirements, whatever their composition, emplacement depth, and internal structure. This category includes mafic-ultramafic intrusions such as the Bushveld Complex, large granite batholiths such as the Andean and Tibet-Himalayan batholiths, and giant dyke swarms such as the Mackenzie dyke swarm of Canada (Ernst et al., 1995).

Large Rhyolitic Provinces (LRPs) and Large Granitic Provinces (LGPs)

The term silicic LIP or SLIP used for rhyolite-dominated large volcanic provinces (Bryan et al., 2000, 2002;SLIPs webpage) recognizes the fact that LIPs can be of felsic composition. However, this term should strictly include the big granitic batholiths of the world but does not. I propose that large volcanic provinces dominated by broadly rhyolitic rocks (i.e., the rhyolite-rhyodacite-dacite-trachyte compositional range, both sub-alkalic and alkalic lineages) be calledLarge Rhyolitic Provinces (LRPs). Besides the Whitsunday and the Sierra Madre Occidental provinces, the NeoproterozoicMalaniprovince of northwestern India (Sharma, 2004, 2005) is a good example.

Plutonic provinces with the same compositions can similarly be calledLarge Granitic Provinces (LGPs). Granitic implies the compositional range granitegranodiorite-tonalite-trondhjemite. The Archaean-Proterozoic charnockite (hypersthenegranite) massifs of southern India (Rajesh & Santosh, 2004) are included in the LGP category. Both LRP and LGP are independent of the geodynamic origins and tectonic settings of these rocks.

I suggest that large volcanic provinces of dominantly basaltic composition be calledLarge Basaltic Provinces (LBPs). Basaltic implies the compositional range basaltic andesite-basalt-picrobasalt (and their alkalic equivalents). The rock type basaltic andesite belongs in this category because many flood basalts are in fact basaltic andesites. Examples include many Deccan lavas from the Western Ghats (see Fig. 4a on theDeccan page) and the Grande Ronde lavas of the Columbia River basalt province that constitute 85% of the volume of that province (Hooper, 1997; Ed: See also comment onColumbia River Province size).

Fig. 3 (at right). A thick pile of Palaeogene flood basalts on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Photo: Hetu Sheth, September 2005.

Fig. 4. The Ofaerufoss in the great Eldgja (A.D. 934) fissure in southern Iceland. Photo: Hetu Sheth, September 2003.

It is to be noted that the term LBP refers not only toexclusivelybasaltic provinces that lack felsic rocks (e.g., the Columbia River province; Hooper, 1997) but equally well todominantlybasaltic provinces with subordinate amounts of more evolved rocks such as rhyolite and trachyte. Mostcontinental flood basalt(CFB) provinces are of this type. Examples of LBPs thus include theDeccanColumbia River, Rajmahal,Siberian, Emeishan, Madagascar, Karoo, Parana-Etendeka, Yemen-Ethiopia andNorth Atlantic Tertiary provinces(Fig. 3). The oceanic flood basalt provinces, the so-called oceanic plateaus (e.g.,Ontong JavaIceland, and Kerguelen; Fig. 4), are also LBPs. Large oceanic island-seamount chains such as theHawaii-Emperor (Fig. 5) and the Ninety East Ridge also belong in the LBP category, as do broad areas of diffuse basaltic volcanism on the continents (e.g.,Mongolia;Barry et al., 2003) and in the oceans (e.g., theSouth Pacific Superswell;Janney et al., 2000). The term LBP is independent of tectonic setting.

Fig. 5. Red-hot Kilauea lava in action. Photo: Hetu Sheth, July 2002.

Large Basaltic-Rhyolitic Provinces (LBRPs)

When felsic lavas and mafic lavas in an LVP each constitute nearly half of the total volume, they constitute a bimodal LVP with intermediate compositions more or less absent. These, I callLarge Basaltic-Rhyolitic Provinces (LBRPs). There are fewer members in this category than the LBPs. Examples are the Snake River Plain-OregonHigh Lava Plains provinceof the western U.S.A. (e.g.,Jordan, 2005), and the Palaeoproterozoic (2.5 2.2 Ga) Dongargarh Group in central India (Sensarma et al., 2004).

I suggest the termLarge Andesitic Province (LAP)for any andesite-dominated province that meets the LIP size requirement. No tectonic setting is implied, but it is clear that most andesites are erupted in subduction zones (Gill, 1981). This category includes as members andesitic belts along island arcs (e.g., Indonesia, Japan), active continental margins (e.g., the Ecuadorian-Colombian Andes, Peruvian-Chilean Andes, Cascades, andMexico-central America), and continental collision zones (e.g.,Iran-Turkey).

The largest LBP and LIP is not theOntong JavaSiberian Traps, or theCentral Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is, of course, the ocean floor. ThoughCoffin & Eldholm(1992, 1993, 1994) would exclude volcanic provinces formed by normal seafloor spreading from their definition of LIPs, this exclusion is not warranted. Though the formation of the ocean floor is gradual and very long-lived, the production rate is high. It takes only a 500-km-long ocean ridge segment spreading with a half-rate of 5 cm/yr to create a 100-km-long (or 50,000 km2area) expanse of new oceanic lithosphere in only 1 million years. The 50,000-km-long worldwide network of ridges, with this average half-spreading rate, creates 5 million km2of oceanic lithosphere in just 1 million years. The average thickness of the modern oceanic crust is 7 1 km (e.g., White et al., 1992), of which the basaltic part (pillow basalts and sheeted dykes) makes up ~2 km (Boudier & Nicolas, 1985;Nicolas, 1989). Thus, the lower size limit of 50,000 km2proposed here for a LIP, and the areas and volumes of most LIPs, are small in relation to the output of the mid-ocean ridge system over comparable time scales.

A hierarchical classification of large igneous provinces

The foregoing discussion shows that the term LIP is broad and vague. For this reason I suggest the hierarchical classification of LIPs described above, which is summarised in Table 1. I note the following:

The terms in boldface in Table 1, with the exception of Large Igneous Province (LIP) are proposed here for the first time. The terms in italics are either formal terms (

) currently in vogue for these provinces, or informal (

The classification proposed is independent of tectonic setting. No tectonic setting is excluded

, though most of the provinces listed belong to intraplate (continental/oceanic) or rifted continental margin. The LAP category includes members only from subduction zones.

Any LAP may include other rock types the only criterion to be satisfied by any province for inclusion in the LAP category is dominantly andesitic compositions of volcanic products and an area of at least 50,000 km

. Thus, the andesite-dominated, 1000-km-long and 50-60-km-wideMexican Volcanic Beltwith its considerable amount of alkalic, ocean-island-basalt-type magmatism (

, 2002; see alsoMexico webpages) is included in this category.

Large Basaltic Provinces (LBPs) or Large Volcanic Provinces (LVPs) in general will necessarily include, besides the lavas, their associated dyke swarms and intrusive complexes.

The category of dominantly mafic, intrusive, continental LIPs includes the layered mafic intrusions and the giant dyke swarms. Both types of features may have been feeders to flood basalt provinces now lost to erosion. The famous Skaergaard Intrusion is quite small (100 km

) and forms part of the East Greenland flood basalt province, and thus does not feature in Table 1. The Dufek and Forrestal Intrusions of Antarctica that cover ~6,600 km

, 2003) similarly belong to the Jurassic Ferrar flood basalt province. Worldwide, only the Precambrian Bushveld Complex of South Africa (60,000 km

, 2001) reaches the lower proposed size limit for a LIP. Other well-known layered mafic intrusions (Duluth, Stillwater, Muscox, Kiglapait) are well below this size.

Whereas Large Granitic Provinces (LGPs) is an apt term for broadly granitic (granite-granodiorite-tonalite) batholiths, a corresponding short and single term for dominantly mafic, intrusive, continental category (

, Large Gabbroic Provinces) does not seem possible. This is because many layered mafic intrusions have significant volumes of ultramafic rocks, and associated giant dyke swarms (

Table 1. Proposed terminology and hierarchical classification of the large igneous provinces (LIPs), with examples (Sheth,2007)

Extrusive/intrusive provinces of any composition and tectonic setting with a minimum area of 50,000 km2

(lavas: pyroclastics = 100:0 to 0:100, sub-alkalic: alkalic = 100:0 to 0:100)

LargeBasaltic-Rhyolitic Provinces (LBRPs)

Snake River Plain-Oregon High Lava Plains,

Orogenic/Anorogenic granitic batholiths:

Anorthosite massifs(size permitting)

The term Large Igneous Province (LIP) is loosely defined (Saunders, 2005), and no attempts have hitherto been made to evolve a more appropriate and accurate classification. In my opinion, LIP covers a very broad category of provinces larger than 50,000 km2in area. I suggest separate terms for each of the several categories of LIPs and define them here on the basis of dominantly extrusive or intrusive emplacement and rock compositions. Correct terminology is important as it influences the way we approach scientific problems. The classification proposed here is simple and easy to use. I hope that it will be adopted and lead to more accurate and effective communication among scientists working in this field.

I am grateful to Ian Skilling, James White, and Thor Thordarson for valuable and thought-provoking reviews, and to Ninad Bondre, Kamal Sharma, Sarajit Sensarma and Gillian Foulger for several helpful comments.

Barry, T., Saunders, A. D., Kempton, P. D., Windley, B. F., Pringle, M. S., Dorjnamjaa, D., Saandar, S., 2003. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic basalts from Mongolia: Evidence for the role of asthenospheric versus metasomatized lithospheric mantle sources.

Boudier, F., Nicolas, A., 1985. Harzburgite and lherzolite subtypes in ophiolitic and oceanic environments.

Bryan, S. E., Ewart, A., Stephens, C. J., Parianos, J., Downes, P. J., 2000. The Whitsunday volcanic province, central Queensland, Australia: lithologic and stratigraphic investigations of a silicic-dominated large igneous province.

Bryan, S. E., Riley, T. R., Jerram, D. A., Leat, P. T., Stephens, C. J., 2002. Silicic volcanism: an undervalued component of large igneous provinces and volcanic rifted margins. In: Menzies, M. A., Klemperer, S. L., Ebinger, C. J., Baker, J. (Eds.), Volcanic Rifted Margins.

Coffin, M. F., Eldholm, O., 1992. Volcanism and continental break-up: a global compilation of large igneous provinces. In: Storey, B. C., Alabaster, T., Pankhurst, R. J. (Eds.) Magmatism and the Causes of Continental Break-up.

Coffin, M. F., Eldholm, O., 1993. Scratching the surface: estimating dimensions of large igneous provinces.

Coffin, M. F., Eldholm, O., 1994. Large igneous provinces: crustal structure, dimensions, and external consequences.

Ernst, R. E., Head, J. W., Parfitt, E., Grosfils, E., Wilson, L., 1995. Giant radiating dyke swarms on Earth and Venus.

Ernst, R. E., Buchan, K. L., Campbell, I. H., 2005. Frontiers in large igneous province research.

Ferris, J. K., Storey, B. C., Vaughan, A. P. M., Kyle, P. R., Jones, P. C., 2003. The Dufek and Forrestal intrusions, Antarctica: A Centre for Ferrar large igneous province dike emplacement?

Foulger, G. R., Natland, J. H., Presnall, D. C., Anderson, D. L. (Eds.), 2005. Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms.

Gill, J. B., 1981. Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 358 pp.

He, B., Xu, Y.-G., Chung, S.-L., Xiao, L., Wang, Y., 2001. Sedimentary evidence for a rapid, kilometre-scale crustal doming prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts.

Hooper, P. R., 1988. The Columbia River basalt. In: Macdougall, J. D. (Ed.), Continental Flood Basalts, pp. 1-33. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht.

Hooper, P. R., 1997. The Columbia River flood basalt province: current status. In: Mahoney, J. J., Coffin, M. F. (Eds.), Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism.

Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr.

Janney, P., Macdougall, J. D., Natland, J. H., Lynch, M. A., 2000. Geochyemical evidence from the Pukapuka volcanic ridge system for a shallow enriched mantle domain beneath the South Pacific Superswell.

Jordan, B. T., 2005. The Oregon High Lava Plains: a province of counter-tectonic age progressive volcanism. In: Foulger, G. R., Natland, J. H., Presnall, D. C., Anderson, D. L. (Eds.),Plates, Plumes, and Paradigms.

Kerr, A. C., England, R. W., Wignall, P. B. (Eds.), 2005. Mantle plumes: Physical Processes, Chemical Signatures, Biological Effects.

Macdougall, J. D. (Ed.), 1988. Continental Flood Basalts. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht.

Mahoney, J. J., Coffin, M. F. (Eds.), 1997. Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic, and Planetary Flood Volcanism.

Am. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monogr.

Nicolas, A., 1989. Structures of Ophiolites and Dynamics of Oceanic Lithosphere. Kluwer, Boston.

Rajesh, H. M., Santosh, M., 2004. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India. In: Sheth, H. C., Pande, K. (Eds.) Magmatism in India through Time.

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.)

Reichow, M. K., Saunders, A. D., White, R. V., Pringle, M. S., AlMukhamedov, A. I., Medvedev, A., Korda, N., 2002. New

Ar data for basalts from the West Siberian Basin: extent of the Siberian flood basalt province doubled.

Saunders, A. D., 2005. Large Igneous Provinces: Origin and Environmental Consequences.

Sensarma, S., Hoernes, S., Mukhopadhyay, D., 2004. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the Bijli Rhyolite in a Palaeoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group), central India. In: Sheth, H. C., Pande, K. (Eds.) Magmatism in India through Time.

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.)

Sharma, K. K., 2004. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian shield implications for crust-building processes. In: Sheth, H. C., Pande, K. (Eds.) Magmatism in India through Time.

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.)

Sharma, K. K., 2005. The Malani magmatism: an extensional lithospheric tectonic origin. In: Foulger, G. R., Natland, J. H., Presnall, D. C., Anderson, D. L. (Eds.)Plates, Plumes and Paradigms.

Sheth, H. C., Pande, K. (Eds.), 2004. Magmatism in India through Time.

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.)

Sheth, H. C., Torres-Alvarado, I. S., Verma, S. P., 2000. Beyond subduction and plumes: a unified tectonic-petrogenetic model for the Mexican Volcanic Belt.

Verma, S. P., 2002. Absence of Cocos plate subduction-related basic volcanism in southern Mexico: A unique case on Earth?

Wadia, D. N., 1975. The Geology of India, 4

White, R. S., McKenzie, D., ONions, R. K., 1992. Oceanic crustal thickness from seismic measurements and rare earth element inversions.

Winter, J. D., 2001. An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 697 pp.

Without getting into a protracted debate, I find the new classification interesting but too broad. It seems to encompass alllarge provinces that have protracted magmatism and, technically, should also include the entire ocean floor, as Hetu says. An important feature of LIPs, and one which makes their defintion rather more restrictive, is the period of emplacement which I have always assumed to be geologically short [here, short is as fairly loosely defined as islarge].

Any useful classification scheme needs to give a least a glance towards process. Thus LIPs are produced by unusual processes (plume or not), and are thus distinct from subduction and MOR-related systems (but can overlap geographically and tectonically with these (viz Iceland and CRB).

I think Hetu has hit on an interesting topic; existing definitions are vague, as a number of us have indicated (see recent issue of Elements). Im not sure that this is necessarilya bad thing weve all tried todefine the termsplume or lithosphere – but the definition should not be too all-embracing. If it does, it becmes unwieldy and wont, I believe, help further our understanding.

Here are two relatively recent encyclopedia articles of relevance:

Coffin, M.F., and Eldholm, O., 2001. Large igneous provinces, in Steele, J.H., Thorpe, S.A., and Turekian, K.K., eds., Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press, London: 1290-1298.

Coffin, M.F., and Eldholm, O., 2005. Large igneous provinces, in Selley, R.C., Cocks, R., and Plimer, I.R., eds., Encyclopedia of Geology, Elsevier, Oxford: 315-323.

I always thought that the duration and rapidity had to be controlled by the lithosphere (stress-valve) rather than mantle temperature, and that large-scale ponding prior to release was implied. I dont know if this glance toward process can be built into a definition. LIPs differ from non LIPs in that the process is finite in duration (the rates and volumes are not exceptional). This could, of course, reflect the size of the fertile blobs, or the duration of extension. The tectonic context is also necessary.

An updated definition of LIP may be in order ( and plume! ). Lavoisier said that you cannot pretend to have a science unless you have a language and definitions. Things have moved along since the Encyclopedia artiicles were published. The Elements volume is a fantastic update of the situation. But the ideas that mantle convection controls the plates rather than vice versa , and that magma volume and rate is a proxy for high T are still around. You have to decide whether volcanism, anomalous or not, and uplift and rifting, is cause or effect. The main changes in thinking are papers on melting instabilities and on the possibility that high homologous temperature, rather than high absolute temperature, is the key variable. Papers by Tackley, Stevenson, Raddick, Parmentier…on melt instabilities, and Abt, Rudnick, Kays, Cin-Ty Lee, Humphreys etc. on delamination, are important in the LIP discussion.

Although LIPs MAY require very large absolute temperature (rather than ponding, fertility, shallow recycling, delamination, homologous T, melting instabilities and lithospheric control), this should not be part of the definition. If short duration is part of the definition it should not then be stated that this is a characteristic of a plume, as Richards and Courtillot did; this is circular reasoning. Stress and fertility can change rapidly; temperature cannot.

I agree with you that process (source T or fertility, fundamental cause such as plume, EDGE convection, delamination etc) should not play a role in the definition or classification of a LIP. My initial comment was intended to mean that a definition or classification, to be useful, should bear the processes in mind. A similar approach is taken with the classification of most rocks, especially igneous (e.g, the broad division into volcanic and plutonic nods towards a recognition of emplacement style, but is not in itself dependent upon that process).

Here is my contribution to the current discussion of LIP definition. There are three points relevant to a definition of LIPs:

To these Hetu has proposed subclassifications based on magmatic composition (mafic, felsic intermediate) and whether the main magmatism is volcanic or intrusive (plutonic).

SIZE OF LIPS: See a proposal for a new classification of magmatic events (including LIPs) based on size which is extracted from the attached paper byBleeker & Ernst (2006).Note that we retain the conventional minimum size of 100,000 km2, in disagreement withHetus suggestions of50,000 km2

—————————————————————–

Bleeker & Ernst (2006) We suggest the following classification of event sizes, compatible with common usage in large igneous province terminology (e.g. Coffin & Eldholm 1994, 2001):

The first three categories (giant, major, and substantial) qualify the size of what are generally considered large igneous provinces (LIPs), with (eruptive) volume estimates on the order of one to several million cubic kilometres[1]. When intrusive and underplated volumes are considered as well, some of the largest LIPs would classify as true giants, e.g. the Ontong Java plateau at ca. 45x106km3. The two smaller categories (moderate to small) describe sub-LIP scale events.

[1] Coffin & Eldholm (1994, 2001) and others (e.g. Ernst et al. 2005) have generally used a surface area of 105km2, rather than volume estimates, to define LIPs.

————————————————————————————-

Some LIPs are clearlyvery short duration events, Deccan, Siberian Traps, Mackenzie (1270 Ma). However, otherevents are clearly more protracted; Keweenawan (1116-1085 Ma), probably Parana, Iapetus-margin (615-550 Ma), Matachewan (2500-2450 Ma), and many potential Archean analogues.Many of the protracted events are actually characterized by multiple pulses (e.g. the NAIP, Blekinge Dalarna (975-948 Ma; main pulse at 948 Ma), and Central Scandinavian Dolerite Group event (1270-1248; 3 pulses)). So a short duration is not a required component of the LIP definition.

Ideally, LIP definition and classification should be based on observable/measurable characteristics, not be based on interpreted origin, plume, rifting, delamination. So Hetus classification based on magmatic type (dominantly mafic, felsic intermediate, extrusive, intrusive) is interesting in that regard. I certainly agree that discussion of the LIP definition is required. Do we go toward something similar to Hetus, or do we stay with the traditional definition (e.g. Coffin & Eldholm definition) which links LIPs to process other than normal sea floor spreading, and whichimplicitly excludes normal subduction-related magmatism. I look forward to further discussion on this.

But I disagree strongly on at least two points in Hetus article:

1) It is a mistake to group the 1270 Ma Mackenzie with the Tibet-Himalayan batholiths as LPPs. There is no insight or understanding gained by grouping a classicmafic-ultramaficevent(rifting/plume related) witha classic felsicevent (collision/subduction related).

2) I think the 100,000 km2minimum size for LIPs should be retained (see my point above).

Size should not be in the definition if it is arbitrary. Is there a natural cut off? Likewise for duration and rate and thickness. If these merge into non LIPs then there may be a continuum and artificial limits would not be helpful. LIPs occur when continents are converging and diverging. They also overlap MORB, back arc basin and arc basalts in chemistry. The temperatures of the magmas or parents or source mantle would be helpful.

Clearly size, duration, rate and thickness are all a continuum from very small to very large. Maybe instead of proliferating categories we should just dump the term LIP it might be misleading us.

I am pleased to see the amount of discussion my contribution has generated. In this common Reply, I provide some clarifications on the issues raised by the readers above.

First, there seems to be complete (and fortunate) agreement that LIP is a broad and vague term. Dr. Saunders words, the definition should not be too all-embracing. If it does, it becmes unwieldy and wont help further our understanding are perfectly true of LIP. LIP IS an al

New Printing Equipment Hardware

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

Awards, ChromaLuxe, Plaques & Photo Panels

Epson Desktop Printers – ArTainium & subli-trans

Epson Large Format Printers – SubliJet-E & SubliJet-IQ Pro Photo

Epson Wide Format Printers – UltraChrome DS

Roland Wide Format Printers – SubliM

Digital Printable Heat Transfer Vinyl

Ink Solutions – Papersolve SB Gloss

Wilflex – PC (Pigment Concentrates)

Advanced Innovative Technologies – AIT

Discovering Direct-to-Garment (DTG) Printing

Introduction to Graphics Software for Printing

Learn the Secrets of Successful Sublimation

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

Looking for shiny new kit? Youve come to the right place. From desktop and wide-format dye sublimation solutions, direct to garment (DTG) printers, UV printers, doming solutions, fully automatic to manual screen printing machines, desktop and larger format heat transfer presses, vacuum frames and dryersGJS has the perfect solution to help you profit from print

All the new equipment comes with a minimum 12-month warranty and a seven-day money-back guarantee.

Unit 2/16 Mavis St, REVESBY NSW 2212 AustraliaBecome a creator

Join Australias biggest collective of digital decorators, garment customisation gurus and embellishment entrepreneurs.

Congo, the Democratic Republic of the

Croatia (local Name

Korea, Democratic Peoples Republic of

Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

United States minor outlying islands

Your request for help has been sent. You should receive a response from us shortly.

Your selection has been added to your shopping cart.

Continue and well create a account for fast checkout, easy access to order history, event bookings and more.

Printing tips, tricks and resourcesSubscribeJoin NowCreate a free online account for5% offyour first order, ongoing discounts, reward points, access to all support documentation and more!—————Australia—————AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBoliviaBosnia and HerzegowinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, the Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote dIvoireCroatia (local Name>

Hrvatska)CubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast TimorEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEstoniaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrance, MetropolitanFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuamGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard and Mc Donald IslandsHoly see (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran (Islamic Republic of)IraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic Peoples Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao Peoples Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacauMacedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMicronesia, Federated States ofMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNetherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorthern Mariana IslandsNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPalestinian Territory, occupiedPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalPuerto RicoQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakia (Slovak Republic)SloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSpainSri LankaSt. HelenaSt. Pierre and MiquelonSudanSuriNameSvalbard and Jan Mayen IslandsSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwan, Republic of ChinaTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUnited States minor outlying islandsUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaViet NamVirgin Islands (British)Virgin Islands (U.S.)Wallis and Futuna IslandsWestern SaharaYemenYugoslaviaZambiaZimbabwe(other)I am not a robotJoinAccount SignupWelcome to gjs.co

Thank you for registering, a confirmation email has been sent to you which includes your password.

Please check your junk email folder for an email titledWelcome to gjs.coand your safe senders list.

If you have registered with an incorrect email, simply signup again using the correct email addresshereand your previous account will be removed.

We hope you enjoy your gjs.co membership.

Digital Laser Decorators

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

Awards, ChromaLuxe, Plaques & Photo Panels

Epson Desktop Printers – ArTainium & subli-trans

Epson Large Format Printers – SubliJet-E & SubliJet-IQ Pro Photo

Epson Wide Format Printers – UltraChrome DS

Roland Wide Format Printers – SubliM

Digital Printable Heat Transfer Vinyl

Ink Solutions – Papersolve SB Gloss

Wilflex – PC (Pigment Concentrates)

Advanced Innovative Technologies – AIT

Discovering Direct-to-Garment (DTG) Printing

Introduction to Graphics Software for Printing

Learn the Secrets of Successful Sublimation

Textile Printing Solutions Comparison

ChromaBlast Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Dye Sublimation Heat Transfer Starter Kit

FOREVER Laser Heat Transfer Starter Kit

Liquid Lens Doming Print & Cut Systems

Textile Screen Printing Starter Kit

Desktop Workhorse Sublimation Systems

Large Format Production Sublimation Systems

Wide Format Flagship Sublimation Systems

Large Format & Automatic Platen Heat Presses

Rotary Calendar Drum Heat Transfer Presses

Heat transfer metallized foils onto gifts, promotional giveaways, merchandise and so much more.

Roland DGSHAPE LD-80 Laser Decorator

We commenced wide format sublimation operations in 2010. GJS Machinery supplied the equipment and service for our operations. We are pleased to recommend GJS Machinery to any business. They have provided us with excellent service, even under difficult and unusual circumstances. Every call and email enquiry we have made has been followed up professionally and swiftly. We would be more than happy to verify this recommendation to anyone contacting us directly.

A pleasure to work with and so helpful answering all questions.

Well deliver your order for free if you spend over $300 on our website and live in the Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane metro area with competitive freight charges out of these areas. Check to see if your post code qualifiesonline.

Unit 2/16 Mavis St, REVESBY NSW 2212 AustraliaBecome a creator

Join Australias biggest collective of digital decorators, garment customisation gurus and embellishment entrepreneurs.

Congo, the Democratic Republic of the

Croatia (local Name

Korea, Democratic Peoples Republic of

Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

United States minor outlying islands

Your request for help has been sent. You should receive a response from us shortly.

Your selection has been added to your shopping cart.

Continue and well create a account for fast checkout, easy access to order history, event bookings and more.

Printing tips, tricks and resourcesSubscribeJoin NowCreate a free online account for5% offyour first order, ongoing discounts, reward points, access to all support documentation and more!—————Australia—————AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBoliviaBosnia and HerzegowinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, the Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote dIvoireCroatia (local Name>

Hrvatska)CubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast TimorEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEstoniaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrance, MetropolitanFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuamGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard and Mc Donald IslandsHoly see (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran (Islamic Republic of)IraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic Peoples Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao Peoples Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacauMacedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMicronesia, Federated States ofMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNetherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorthern Mariana IslandsNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPalestinian Territory, occupiedPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalPuerto RicoQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakia (Slovak Republic)SloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSpainSri LankaSt. HelenaSt. Pierre and MiquelonSudanSuriNameSvalbard and Jan Mayen IslandsSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwan, Republic of ChinaTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUnited States minor outlying islandsUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaViet NamVirgin Islands (British)Virgin Islands (U.S.)Wallis and Futuna IslandsWestern SaharaYemenYugoslaviaZambiaZimbabwe(other)I am not a robotJoinAccount SignupWelcome to gjs.co

Thank you for registering, a confirmation email has been sent to you which includes your password.

Please check your junk email folder for an email titledWelcome to gjs.coand your safe senders list.

If you have registered with an incorrect email, simply signup again using the correct email addresshereand your previous account will be removed.

We hope you enjoy your gjs.co membership.

s South Africa

project cars or motor bikes less than r3000

Click the star icon in your favorite listings to add items to your Watchlist. Or,

to see your previously saved Watchlist.

Get a daily email with the latest ads in your areas of interest. Free and easy to cancel.

All Categories in South Africa (Keyword:pad printing machines)

By clicking Create Alert you accept the

and agree to receive newsletters and promo offers from us.

BARGAN Printing & Signage business for sale.

Printing-Signs est 30 years fully equippedLitho printing full colour. Heidleburg Mo 2 col & Kord 62 &2 Fuji printing machines. with numberingComputer to plate machine ScreenFinishing EquipmentWollenburg Giliotine Folders Stitchers Platterns- FoilingDigital printer Xerox digitalSignsLarge format Seiko . 2 vinyl cutting machinesSilkscreening vaccum table. doming machine. pad pr

Published in: Businesses For Sale , New Germany

H-PRESS/MT8 Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Heating Press All 3D Shape

Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Heating Press and All 3D Shape Presses (Mugs/Plates/Cups/Cap Presses) (Heat Press) SKU: H-PRESS/MT8, Heat Press, 0840115258 Heat Press Price: R 5 799.00 Price exl. VAT & Shipping Cost, quoted at 2018-5-16 kao8kp3c 0840115258 Use Single Phase 220V Household Power with Maximum 1250W Output Heat Press Temperature

Published in: Office Equipment & Furniture , Melville

H-PRESS/MT8 Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Heating Press All 3D Shape

Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Heating Press and All 3D Shape Presses (Mugs/Plates/Cups/Cap Presses) (Heat Press) Product Code: H-PRESS/MT8, Heat Press, 0724055174 Heat Press Price: R 5 799.00 Sales Price exclude VAT and Delivery Cost, quoted at 2018-5-23 kao8kp3c 0724055174 Temperature Control Precision Within Less Than 2 Degree Celsius Us

H-PRESS/MT8 Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Heating Press All 3D Shape

Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Heating Press and All 3D Shape Presses (Mugs/Plates/Cups/Cap Presses) (Heat Press) SKU: H-PRESS/MT8, Heat Press, 0790781118 Heat Press Price: R 5 799.00 Sales Price exl. VAT & Shipping, quoted at 2018-5-10 kao8kp3c 0790781118 Heat Press Temperature Control Range from Minimal 200 to Maximum 400 Celsius Degree T

Published in: Industrial Machinery , Christiana

Printing, signage and graphics combo package. Make money!!!

Business package for own business. Training offered, Shipping nationwide, 1 Year guarantee.Offer printing as in the photo for profit.1. Custom Fire digital combination heat press machinewith attachments for shirts & flat products, caps, mugs, plates etc.2. HP printer, scanner, copier with 500ml ink per colour c.m.y.k ink & refill kit.3. Ricoh sublimation printer with clear refill cartridges, 100ml

Published in: Businesses For Sale , Kuils River

H-PRESS/MT8 Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Heating Press All 3D Shape

Heatware X8 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Heating Press and All 3D Shape Presses (Mugs/Plates/Cups/Cap Presses) (Heat Press) Code: H-PRESS/MT8, Heat Press, 0790781118 Heat Press Price: R 5 799.00 Price exclude VAT and Shipping, valid at 2018-5-25 kao8kp3c 0790781118 Temperature Control Precision Within Less Than 2 Degree Celsius Use Single Phase 220V

Published in: Office Equipment & Furniture , Springs

H-PRESS/MT6 Heatware X6 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Press, Two Mugs Presses, Two

Heatware X6 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Press, Two Mugs Presses, Two Plate Presses and Cap Press Attachments (Heat Press) Product Code: H-PRESS/MT6, Heat Press, 0724767510 Heat Press Price: R 4 699.00 Sales Price exl. VAT & Transport, quoted at 2018-5-22 kao8kp3c 0724767510 Use Single Phase 220V Household Power with Maximum 1250W Output Automatic He

Published in: Office Equipment & Furniture , Evaton

I sell waterproofed picnic blankets.

and sell waterproofed picnic blankets and dog beds. Picnic blankets are made from shwe shwe African print on the outside and waterproof at the bottom side. They are also padded with betting form for comfortability. The standard family size is 2m1,5m. I also make them in any sizes, as desired by the customer, esp bigger ones for group picnic. I make them in different sizes. You can wash them in th

Published in: Camping Gear , Observatory

and sell waterproofed picnic blankets and dog beds. Picnic blankets are made from shwe shwe African print on the outside and waterproof at the bottom side. They are also padded with betting form for comfortability. The standard family size is 2m1,5m. I also make them in any sizes, as desired by the customer, esp bigger ones for group picnic. I make them in different sizes. You can wash them in th

Published in: Events, Gigs & Nightlife , Observatory

Dog bed: the outside is either made in shwe shwe African print material or fleece material. The reason is the materials are frustrating to chew. They gig beds are one size fit all. A string is used to adjust the size to your preferred size. You can make it bigger or smaller. Inside its also padded with bating form. You can wash them in the washing machine, just like a normal blanket.

Published in: Pet Accessories , Observatory

H-PRESS/MT5 Heatware X5 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Press, Mugs Press, Two Plate

Heatware X5 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Press, Mugs Press, Two Plate Presses and Cap Press Attachments (Heat Press) SKU: H-PRESS/MT5, Heat Press, 0724767510 Heat Press Product Price: R 4 199.00 Sales Price exclude VAT and Shipping Cost, valid at 2018-5-21 kao8kp3c 0724767510 Heat Press Temperature Control Range from Minimal 200 to Maximum 400 Celsiu

Published in: Industrial Machinery , Kempton Park

H-PRESS/MT5 Heatware X5 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Press, Mugs Press, Two Plate

Heatware X5 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Press, Mugs Press, Two Plate Presses and Cap Press Attachments (Heat Press) Code: H-PRESS/MT5, Heat Press, 0790781118 Heat Press Price: R 4 199.00 Price exclude VAT & Delivery Cost, quoted at 2018-5-15 kao8kp3c 0790781118 Temperature Control Precision Within Less Than 2 Degree Celsius Heat Press Temperature Co

Published in: Industrial Machinery , Northgate

H-PRESS/MT9 Heatware X9 1250W Heat Press Multitalent, Flat Heating Press, Shoe Press All

Heatware X9 1250W Heat Press Multitalent with Flat Heating Press, Shoe Press and All 3D Shape Presses (Mugs/Plates/Cups/Cap Presses) (Heat Press) Product Code: H-PRESS/MT9, Heat Press, 0840115258 Heat Press Price: R 6 589.00 Price exl. VAT and Shipping Cost, valid at 2018-5-15 kao8kp3c 0840115258 Heat Press Temperature Control Range from Minimal 200 to Maximum

Published in: Industrial Machinery , Warrenton

Business card cutter PF50W cuts 50x90mm cuts up to 350gms NEW R2995 excluding vat FREE Del

Business card cutter PF50W cuts 50x90mm cuts up to 350gms NEW R2995 excluding vat FREE DelNew A4 Business card cutterCuts 10 out of a A4 in 2 passesCuts 50x90mmCuts up to 350gmsNow on Special offer R2995 excluding 14% vatFree deliverySend a whats app I will send a short videoCall Mark Lloyd 083 302 3789We are direct importers of all print finishing equipment.Guillotines all sizes electric all 22

Published in: Other services , Johannesburg CBD

Electric Round cornering machine NEW with 7 die sizes 220V 80mm stack height with elec foot pedal

Electric Round cornering machine NEW with 7 die sizes 220V 80mm stack height with elec foot pedal Electric Round cornering machine NEW with 7 die sizes 220V R16895 excluding vat DISCOUNTED NOW R15995 ex vat SPECIAL OFFER ONLY 1 Mchines left R15995 ex vat80mm stack height with elec foot pedal Model PF80E corner cutter Electric R16890 ex vat NOW ON SPECIAL OFFER R16895 excluding 14% vatNew Elec

Published in: Office Equipment & Furniture , Brackenfell

Squeegee Rubber Blades and Handles Screen Printing Silkscreen Supplies & Equipment Silk Screen

Well set you up to do printing and keip you happy thereafter!Wide variety on squeegee rubber profiles and shore hardness.Sold per metre, in rolls or in squeegee handles.Machine, Wooden or Aluminium Handles.We can take you from artwork to print.Check out our website keipbros for more equipment, products and accessories.Delivery can be arranged anywhere in South Africa at the buyers cost. C

Published in: Industrial Machinery , Johannesburg South

Print & Finishing Equipment NEW Bargain prices Guillotine,Electric stapler,Perforating,Scoring

Print finishing equipment for sale New MachinesWe sell to all copy shops , Internet caf , 31, Post Net, Post Link, Minute Man pressSupply to all over South Africa and Bordering countries.Importers with full spares and Service support.PF700M to 1600mm wide Hot or coldBusiness care cutters R2995 ex vatRound cornering machines for business cards or Diaries / Note Pads etcLaminating machines all si

Published in: Other services , Johannesburg CBD

MARTIN DREADNOUGHT JUNIOR ACOUSTIC/ELECTRIC GUITAR NATURAL NEW

MARTIN DREADNOUGHT JUNIOR ACOUSTIC/ELECTRIC GUITAR NATURAL FOR PLAYER COMFORT, CLEAR POWERFUL TONE AND EASY ACTION, THE DREADNOUGHT JUNIOR IS REDUCED TO APPROXIMATELY 15/16 OF THE FULL MARTIN 14-FRET DREADNOUGHT DIMENSION (14-1/4 WIDTH AT THE LOWER BOUT) WITH AN EXPRESSIVE 24 SCALE LENGTH. A SOLID SITKA SPRUCE TOP FEATURES SCALLOPED 1/4 HIGH PERFORMANCE X-BRACING

Published in: Musical Instruments , Springs

MARTIN LX1E LITTLE MARTIN ACOUSTIC/ELECTRIC GUITAR NEW

MARTIN LX1E LITTLE MARTIN ACOUSTIC/ELECTRIC GUITAR ITS PREDECESSORS, THE LATEST ADDITION TO THE MARTIN LINE IS BUILT WITH THE SAME MARTIN QUALITY CRAFTSMANSHIP, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON PRODUCING GREAT SOUND IN A SMALLER GUITAR. THESE LITTLE MARTINS ARE DURABLE AND EASY TO PLAY. THEY ARE THE PERFECT PICK UP AND PLAY GUITARS THAT LET YOU JAM AT HOME OR ON THE ROAD AND ARE THE

Published in: Musical Instruments , Springs

Potty pads / Lap Pads for sale for puppy training and small pets like: Rabbits, Birds, Rats,Hamsters, Gerbils, Mice, Monkeys, Sugar Gliders, Guinea Pigs, Tenrecs,Hedgehogs, Chipmunks, Squirrels, Chinchillas etcLots of other Handmade Pet Fleece Cage Accessories for sale.Sizes available for the Lap / Potty pads:Small 150mm x 150mm R 50.00Medium 250mm x 250mm R 60.00Large

Published in: Pet Accessories , Springs

Brand new business opportunity Pad printing

Brand new business opportunity Pad printingThese pad printing equipment will get you off the ground in no time. Pad printing is like a versatile version of screen printing that is used to transfer 2D images onto 3D objects. Like Pens, lighters, rulers, key rings, bottle openers and thousands moreMachine alone cost R12 834Full starter package with inks and accessories R26 594

Published in: Businesses For Sale , Milnerton

Login to enable sending a copy to your email

and agree to receive newsletters and promo offers from us.

All Categories in South Africa (Keyword:pad printing machines)

By clicking Create Alert you accept the

and agree to receive newsletters and promo offers from us.

Resin8™ Doming Epoxy Res SAMPLE KIT

ICE Resin 8 oz Doming Kit 4 oz and 4

Ice Resin 8oz Doming Kit (4oz Res + 4Hardener

The more promotions gifts areSilicone Wristbands USSilicone Bracelets UKcustom bracelets

CNC Router Machines and CNC Milling Plasma cuttg maches from Step Soh Africa

CNC routers, CNC Plasma cutters, CNC Milling, CNC Engraving, CNC machines for South Africa

Our CNC machines can be used for almost any application. Just add modules and you can do Plasma Cutting, Laser Engraving, Granite Engraving, Milling or Routing and more all on one machine.

CNC-Step Gantry machines are very accurate and reliable. CNC-Step machines perform in our Southern African environment.

Sign making, Engraving, Cut model kits, Architects model buildings, Etc. The CNC-Step CNC Routers can cut almost any materials including Wood, Aluminum, Gold, Silver, Brass, Copper, Resins, Glass , Steel, Perspex, Acrylics, Polyethylene, Nylon and more.

and you dont even have to be a computer pro !

Most people have heard the term CNC machine in the last few years but are unsure what it really means.

CNC refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded by a computer program and enable a machine or robot to cut or mill complex shapes and forms from almost any materials.

This technology allows almost anyone to become a master craftsman in a matter of hours, with very little training. Bench top CNC platforms now bring the hi-tech robots into the home and small businesses at reasonable cost and with incredible capability. Only Basic PC knowledge and a little practice with the materials and cutting bits is needed to turn you into a maestro of machining capability.

The software available today will allow a user to quickly extract code from pictures, clipart and vector files or to create ones own models in CAD (Computer Aided Design) programs like AutoCAD, Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, Solidworks, Alibre etc. For complex 3D model cutting, a program that creates a tool path for the machine in full 3 dimensions from a 3D CAD model is Deskproto. This offers low cost rapid prototyping for everyone using a wizard to allow even the greenest operator to create amazing projects using these machines.

Together with their development department and engineers from the machine construction and electronic sector, HEIZ CNC-Technik have developed a range of machines, which are setting new standards with regard to dimension, cost/performance ratio and stiffness as well as stability by their new geometry. Due to the new frame construction they excel by virtue of the wide application range the instruments can perform.

No specific CNC programming-knowledge is necessary for the operation!

You simply create drawings, model sketches or texts in any drafting software, e.g. Corel Draw, CAD programs etc. These may easily be sent to the milling machine as HPGL-file via the delivered CNC-Software Win-PCNC. Milling specific settings can be set in our milling software e.g. speed of operation, scaling, series of milling, immersion depth of the individual tools etc. Once you have become acquainted with the software, operation is quick and easy!

CNC Router Machines and CNC Milling / Plasma cutting machines from CNC Step South Africa

Supplier of CNC Routers, engravers, plasma cutters, bench top CNC machines. Granite engraving, laser enrgaving, Full 3D

Heiz CNC bench top and industrial gantry routers have the distinction of being very high quality and excellent reliability. Our CNC machines have been designed to be multipurpose machines that can do milling, routing, engraving, plasma cutting, tangential knife cutting and vinyl cutting all on the same CNC machine. We have many different size machines for any budget. High Z series and RaptorX SL large industrial machines available. Heiz CNC machines made in Germany

Plot 70Elandsdrift, GP, South Africa

Porno dominguero Mis tumblr hoy cuckoldcornudos

Lao Peoples Democratic RepublicSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsPorno dominguero. Mis tumblr: hoy, cuckold/cornudos

A ver este es un tema curioso. Porque bajo la etiqueta cuckold (hay muchsimo ms en ingls) hay de todo: Desde humillacin del cornudo consentido, a situaciones muy parecidas a los swingers (el marido quiere ver a su mujer con tal tipo de chico/s y elige a esos chicos) o a situaciones BDSM (el marido quiere que su mujer se follada o incluso usada por un nmero x de chicos,.. la castidad forzada del marido con un cinturn de castidad), o perversiones (obsesin con oirla follando sin verla, obsesin con el coño con semen (creampies), con que sea interracial (generalmente, blanca y negro). Y dentro de la humillacin, hay mil estilos tambin: Por tenerla pequeña, por ser impotente, porque el amante es negro, por ser sissy, con bisexualidad forzada (forzada, juju), porque la mujer es su dominatrix, Eso, cien subtipos. As que pondr los enlaces intentando clasificar un poco lo inclasificable (creo).

Cuando un tumblr lleva tiempo sin actualizarse, Tumblr publica por su cuenta publicidad en ellos de Southwest o Starbucks. En esos casos, enlazo con el archivo del tumblr, para que sea ms fcil ver si interesa o no.

What Id like to catch my girl with(cierto aire femdom)

Cuckold Nuernberg(castidad, algo de femdom)

Cuckold Chronicle(femdom y otras cosas)

Celibate cuck(embarazos, strapon, caption, axilas sin depilar)

White Slut Fucked by BBC Interracial(BBC = Big Black Cock)

Femdom Hotwife Cuckold Interracial(pues eso, todo femdom)

Sissy Cuck Humiliation: Sissy, castidad

Sissy in the making: En realidad sumisos ellos, pero tambin chicas.

Wicked Shiz: Lo mismo, sissy, castidad, humillacin y tambin chicas.

Dominant outside the bedroom, submissive inside: Sissy, castidad, etc.

Sissy Cuckold Life(con interracial, femdom)

About love and control(de sissy tambin).

I know whats waiting for me(tb interracial, sph)

Chastity333(y captions, interracial)

Cucked in WV: Hasta diciembre (ms abajo de lo que aparece primero) iba bien

Anal Stretching 4 male:En realidad es ms de strap-on y fisting a chicos.

Electro-stim.strap-on.fist.bi.anal.machine: Sobre todo, strap-on y fisting.

Fuck me please(es de una chica, parece)

The Making of a Hotwife(tb de interracial mucho)

Cuckold captioning: puntillo entre swinger y bdsm

Somos una pareja madura, yo 60 y mi mujer 56, aunque ella representa unos diez años menos.

Yo tengo gusto por la sumision, y me excita ver como otro hombre la penetra y que ella me ordene que les proporcione sexo oral a los dos, y cuando acaban, que limpie los sexos de ambos con mi lengua.

A ella le gusta ver como masturbo y se lo chupo a su macho, y casi siempre me obliga a tragar el semen de su hombre.

Actualmente, tenemos un tercero de 47 años y con una verga gruesa. Es bastante morboso y le agrada ordenar que se lo chupemos entre mi mujer y yo., y cuando va a orinar, le gusta sacudir su miembro en mi cara y que se lo limpie con mi lengua.

Aunque al principio me costo traspazar la linea de situaciones que me producian temor, ahora, me encanta que nos juntemos los fines de semana, ver como penetra a mi mujer, sentir el olor y el sabor de su verga en mi boca y sentir que mi Ama ocupa mi boca para su placer y el de su amante.

MailNo va a ser publicado(Obligatorio)

Diseño:Miguel Vagalume- Desarrollo:Dosdepipas

Used- Demak Doming Machine Model CV 700 XYotor and Palletizer 1000

Used- Demak Doming Machine, Model CV 700 XY Motor and Palletizer 1000. 3 phase 220V, 51 long x 91 wide x 91 high. Mfg: 2013.

Used- Demak Doming Machine, Model CV 700 XY Motor and Palletizer 1000. 3 phase 220V, 51 long x 91 wide x 91 high. Mfg: 2013.

If you have an account with us, login using your email address.

The login information you entered does not match our records.

Do not have an account yet? Get started now!

If you already have a My Aaron account, pleasesign inhere

Korea, Democratic PeopleS Republic Of

Lao PeopleS Democratic Republic

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of

Saint Helena, Ascension And Tristan Da Cunha

South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands

United States Minor Outlying Islands

Search our complete online inventory.

List equipment directly on our site.

This is a secure server. Aaron does not sell or rent information to third parties. Please read our Privacy Policy for more information.

This email ID already has an account. Would you like us to email you the Password

If you would like to be sent your password, please enter your email address below and press submit. We will send you an email with your password.

Thank You, your password has been Sent.

Similar Labelers Pressure Sensitive – Spot

View All 4 Labelers Pressure Sensitive – Spot

Used- Weber Labeling Model 5100 Pressure Sensitive

Used- New Jersey Machinery Auto-Colt Model 305 Pre

Used- Label-Aire 2111M Pressure Sensitive Labeler

Used- Label-Aire Model 3115-1500-4 LH Top and Bot

We pay Top Dollar for your idle process equipment! Fill out our form and our buying team will get back to you.

View our entire process equipment inventory online or visit our location for an equipment inspection.

Email or call us to speak with an equipment specialist to answer any machinery questions you may have.

Durban

Gold, Brass, Nickle, Black Nickle, Light antique brass, Light antique copper.

Doming / Epoxy coating of the inserts will enhance the appearance of the medal. This can be applied to custom painted medals.

We can supply single colour ribbons or custom woven strips. A third option is to screen print onto the ribbon.

REQUEST A QUOTEfrom Tony Miller Promotions

Tony Miller Promotions 56 Evans Road, Glenwood, Durban, 4001, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Domingo Imagens em Gifs com Frasee Mensag Grtis

The more promotions gifts areCustom WristbandsSilicone Bracelets in UKcustom bracelets Canada