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Doming Sets

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Used by the professional jeweller, all over the world, who demand the best. Our doming sets are manufactured to the finest quality. Consisting of hardened,

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Crustal Doming and the Mechanism of Continental Riftg

Bott, M.H.P., 1980. Crustal doming and the mechanism of continental rifting. In: J.H. Illies (Editor), Mechanism of Graben Formation. Tectonophysics, 73: 18.

A mechanical explanation of the relationship between crustal uparching and graben formation is suggested, based on the geologically supported assumption that doming precedes rifting. Rifting and graben formation can occur under conditions of crustal tension by the Vening Meinesz wedge subsidence mechanism modified to apply to the uppermost 20 km or thereabouts of the continental crust. If sediment-filled troughs of around 5 km depth are to be formed by this mechanism, then a persistent tension of about 200 MPa (2 kbar) is required. Such a stress system may result from the combined effect of the topographic load of the uplifted region and the upthrust caused by the underlying low-density upper mantle region below. If the upper 10 to 20 km of the crust is elastic but the underlying region can deform slowly by visco-elastic creep, then stress differences of the order of 200 MPa can occur in the upper elastic crust by this process. It is suggested that such a stress system, rather than one arising from bending of the uparched crust or from plate boundary stresses, may be the primary cause of the rifting.

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Diastasis Recti Test

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Diastasis Recti happens when the abdominal and pelvic region is subjected to uncontained Intra Abdominal Pressure. Thats pressure pushing outwards and downwards, pressure that your core isnt withstanding and containing as nature intended, resulting in the common Mummy Tummy bulge.

Because the muscles and the function of your core are compromised, pelvic floor weakness very often accompanies a diastasis and in severe cases, hernia or pelvic organ prolapse may even occur.

You can test yourself to find out the extent of your own diastasis and level of core weakness.

Whilst performing the test please also be mindful of:

• A soft gap or separation between the 2 parts of the Rectus muscle

• Any bulging or doming of the abdomen

• Feel your pelvic floor is there any bulging or doming?

Its important to note that youre not just assessing the width of the gap, but also the depth. How much resistance does the connective tissue in the middle, offer?

Do your fingers sink deep into a soft and squishy area or does it feel firm in the middle when you perform the test?

Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor.

You can rest your head on a cushion or pillow.

Relax your head and shoulders and place 3 fingers (palm facing you) just higher than your belly button. Press down gently but firmly with your fingertips, and then lift your shoulder blades slightly off the floor. You will feel the muscles close in around your fingers as you lift your head and neck. Dont lift your shoulders up too high. Dont hold this position for more than a second or two. You may want to try a few times so you can feel how the muscles work. If you dont feel the two ridges of the muscles with 2 fingers then try more. A diastasis gap is measured in finger widths. A 1-2 finger width gap or less is fine, but dont panic if its much bigger at first.

Remember, you are also testing for the condition of the connective tissue (the Linea Alba). So for this we are looking at the depth of the DR, the further your fingers go into your belly, the weaker the connective tissue.

Dont do crunches. This simply increases pressure pushing out on your tummy and down on your pelvic floor and makes the doming or bulging worse. A full Plank position is also unsuitable if you do not have foundation core control and stability.

In terms of every day movements, avoid lifting straight up from a horizontal lying position always roll to your side and push up from there; be careful when twisting and turning from the waist, be aware and USE your core muscles (MUTU System teaches you how!) whenever you lift, twist or get up from lying or crouching.

Go to Video 3 of series: Diastasis Recti Treatment

Go back to to Video 1 of series: Diastasis Recti Symptoms


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As the concept of sea floor spreading gained acceptance in the late 60s, the consequences for geology gradually began to dawn. One of the first to recognise how plate tectonics could be applied to the geological record was J. Tuzo Wilson. If continents rift apart to form ocean basins, other oceans must close. This may be repeated throughout Earth history. Example: the IAPETUS ocean between England & Scotland in the Lower Palaeozoic, closed in the Caledonian; later opening of the Atlantic, almost in the same place. The cycle is known as the Wilson Cycle:

(1)Rifting of continents by mantle diapirism

(2)Continental drift, seafloor spreading & formation of ocean basins

(3)Progressive closure of ocean basins by subduction of ocean lithosphere

(4)Continental collision and final closure of ocean basin

The two diagrams below (Figs 1 & 2) illustrate some simple (if old) concepts of continental rifting (e.g. the Gondwana continent) at the start of the Wilson Cycle. Uprising plume causes doming of crust with magma chamber developing underneath. As extension continues, an ocean basin forms, and thick sedimentary sequences develop at continental margins as rivers dump sediments in deep water. However in reality may be a bit more complex . . .

CONTINENTAL RIFTING: rrr and RRR triple junctions

Four main stages can be recognised in the tectonic development of a typical rifted passive margin:

(1) TheRIFT VALLEYstage involves early graben formation prior to continental splitting. This stage may be associated with domal uplift caused by uprise of hot upper mantle material – but this uplift is not ubiquitous and may be connected with underlying mantle hotspots. Example: African Rift Valley.

(2) TheYOUTHFULstage, lasting about 50 my after the onsett of seafloor spreading, while the thermal effects are still dominant. This stage is characterised by rapid regional subsidence of the outer shelf and slope, but some graben formation may persist. Example: Red Sea.

(3) TheMATUREstage during which more subdued regional subsidence may continue. Example: most of the present Atlantic continental margins.

(4) TheFRACTUREstage when subduction starts and terminates the history of the continental margin.

Fig. 3. The continent of Africa is thought to have been split by a series of rift valleys in various states of development. Those in East Africa are still in thick crust. Those in West Africa are associated with thick oil-bearing sediments. In the Red Sea area the rifting has gone so far as to form a narrow ocean. In the south-east Madagascar has been completely separated from Africa by rifting.

There are many examples of Stage 1. East African Rift Valley is the classic example. But also the Midland Valley of Scotland, the Rhine Graben, the Oslo Graben. These rifts have never got beyond stage 1. Commonly the volcanism associated with these rifts is highly alkaline and undersaturated in silica.

What initiates rifting? There has been considerable discussion on this over the years. Some have ascribed rifting to up-doming of the crust over a hot-spot; certainly parts of the E African rift system are very elevated, compared with other sectors, suggesting that the doming reflects an underlying hot low-density mantle plume. In other cases, geophysical models suggest the asthenospheric mantle is rising to high levels beneath the rift. However it is also apparent that rifting can take place without extensive uplift; in such cases it may be the convective processes in the underlying asthenosphere which are causing the extension. To rift a continent apart it needs the rifts associated with various possible thermal domes to link together. Morgan (1981, 1983) has suggested that as continents drift slowly over hotspots the hotspots weaken the plate – like a blowtorch impinging on the base – and these weakened zones become the sites of continental rifting.

Burke & Whiteman (1973), following the doming hypothesis, suggested that in these domal regions, three rifts would develop, forming an rrr triple junction. Although it is possible that all three rifts might develop into an ocean (RRR), it is more likely that two of these rifts would develop into an ocean (RRr), leaving the third rift as a failed arm. They demonstrated / speculated that on many continents it was possible to recognise these RRr junctions. The failed arm rift would eventually subside as the thermal anomaly decayed and become the site of a major depositional basin, or a major river channel and delta. The Benue Trough in Nigeria is regarded as an example of such a failed arm following the opening of the S. Atlantic. When oceans eventually close it is possible to recognise these failed arms as depositional basins oriented perpendicular to the collision mountain belt (most basins tend to be aligned parallel to mountain belts). These are termedaulacogens.

Fig. 4. A. Doming by a mantle plume associated with volcanicity. B. Rifting (rrr junction) is initiated. C. Further development results in two of the rifts developing into an ocean, the third is a failed arm (aulacogen). D. Less likely is that all three arms develop into oceans. E. A common situation is that the failed arm develops into a major river system feeding the continental margin. F. Expansion of oceans on a finite earth is not possible: there must be plate subduction, somewhere, sometime. G. Closure of oceans results in island arc development above the subduction zone. H. Continued closure results in collision with major fold and thrust belts. But often the failed arm (aulocogen) is still preserved.

Early ideas on the development of rifts are conceptualised in the diagram shown in Fig. 5. This is based on the African rift system, where there is significant rift magmatism. There is notable extension, shown by the widening of the diagram block by at least 50 km. At the same time there is uplift or ascent of the more ductile mantle, especially the asthenosphere. The crust, and particularly the upper crust, is assumed to act in a brittle fashion.

Fig. 5a. Progressive formation of a rift valley through extension of the lithosphere and continental crust (by about 50 km). Note that uprise and decompression of the underlying asthenosphere results in magma formation. The crust responds by brittle fracture. Early rift sediments are downfaulted into the developing rift (graben). Erosion takes place on the sides of the rift valley.

The first stage assumes that graben-like faults begin to form in the brittle crust.

The second stage shows simultaneous necking of the lithosphere with uprise of an asthenosphere diapir. The decompression associated with the latter causes melting of the mantle to give alkaline basaltic magmas. Pre-existing sediments are downfaulted into the graben.

The third stage is accompanied by significant extension and by more uprise of the asthenosphere. The latter causes doming of the crust (which is evident along the E. African rift system, but is variably devloped. New sediments are deposited within the graben as a result of erosion of the uplifting sides of the graben. So there are both pre-rift and syn-rift sediments within the developing rift valley, but sediments on the flanks are progressively erodied away. Note the complex normal-faulting within the rift valley itself.

The fourth stage (Fig. 5b below) shows the actually rifting-apart of the continent, so the asthenosphere rises towards the surface, causing decompression and extensice melting. New basaltic oceanic crust is formed.

Finally, sea-floor spreading takes over as the ocean basin widens. The rift sedimentary sequence is buried beneath younger marine sediments.

Note: on this diagram the sediments at the continental margin are shown as not very thick. This is because the model is based on the East African Rift System, which does not have a great deal of subsidence associated with rifting. However, other rifted continental margin sequences are very different, with thick sedimentary sequences.

The real situation at passive continental margins is shown in Fig. 6 (below). This is typical of a number of crustal cross-sections across the continental shelf of the eastern Atlantic seaboard of North America, projected down to 30 km — based largely on gravity and magnetic evidence, plus some seismic profiles — and some extrapolation from land geology based on deep drill holes.

The critical point is the huge thicknesses of Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments, here shown as almost 15 km, but in other cross-sections this can be even thicker. Note that at the bottom of this pile are volcanics and volcanogenic sediments, and evaporites, which most likely are shallow water. Also, massive carbonate reef structures, which must also be shallow water, but also must indicate progressive subsidence .. .. slow enough that shallow water sedimentation can keep pace with it.

In many sections of the continental shelf off this eastern seaboard of the USA there is a major coast-parallel magnetic structure, possibly a major intrusion. But its age is unknown.

Fig. 6. Profile of deep structure of continental shelf off Atlantic coast of eastern North America — ?typical of passive continental margins. (Based on gravity, magnetics and seismic data) Critical points regarding this profile are (a) the large thickness of post-rift sediments of Mesozoic-Tertiary age, up to 15 km, and (b) that most of these sediments are shallow-water type. Note: volcanics and evaporites and reef (or carbonate banks)

Continental Rift:elongate tectonic depression with which the entire lithosphere has been modified in extension

Rift System:Tectonically interconnected series of rifts

Modern Rift:A rift that is teconically or magmatically active

Failed Arm:Branch of a triple junction not developed into an ocean basin

Aulacogen:Paleorift in ancient platform that has been reactivated by compressional deformation

Active Rifting:Rifting in response to thermal upwelling of the asthenosphere

Passive Rifting:Rifting in response to remote stress field

Rifting structures are often good sites for mineralisation. This arises for three reasons:

(1)They can be the sites of thick clastic sedimentation. These sediments hold vast amounts of inter-granular salt water (brines). The brines may be in contact with reducing sediments, such as carbonaceous shales, also a ready supply of sulphur/sulphate. As the sediments compact, these brines are expelled and can move laterally for large distances until they move up the rift faults. Having been buried deep the brines get hot, and can be very corrosive. So en route they can dissolve considerable amounts of metals. However, when they rise up the rift faults and cool, these metals will be precipitated out. This can be enhanced because oxidising meteoric water (groundwater) may also penetrate down these faults, so metals wil be precipitated out when the two meet.

(2)Rift structures are also thermally anomalous hot zones. This is because they are frequently underlain by igneous intrusions — granite (or perhaps in some cases gabbro) plutons. This magmatic heat drives the hydrothermal systems. Importantly, these hydrothermal systems can last for many millions of years, so the hot fluids in these hydrothermal systems can leach away at the rocks within the rift system and precipitate the leached metals nearer the surface. Because the rift structures remain topographically low structures for many tens of millions of years, these metals concentrations can be preserved, without being eroded, for long periods.

(3)The rift zones may be the sites of diverse rocks, particularly basaltic lavas, which can release their metals on hydrothermal alteration. However, because the rift faults can extend very deep (well into the upper mantle in some cases), there may also be a component of deep fluids and metals in the hydrothermal system.

The references below will lead you to some of the discussion on rifting and the Wilson Cycle:

BAKER, B.H., MOHR, P. & WILLIAMS, L.A.J. 1972. Geology of the eastern rift system of Africa. Geological Society of America Special Paper136, 1-67.

BOSWORTH, W. 1985. Geometry of propagating continental rifts.Nature316, 625-627.

BOSWORTH, W. 1987. Off-axis volcanism in the Gregory rift, East Africa: implications for models of continental rifting.Geology15, 397-400.

BOTT, M.H.P 1995. Mechanisms ofrifting: Geodynamic modeling of continental rift systems. In: K.H. Olsen (ed.) Continental rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics.Developments in Geotectonics,25, 27-43. Elsevier, Amsterdam

BRAILE, L.W., KELLER, G.R., WENDLANDT, R.F., MORGAN, P. & KHAN, M.A. 1995. The East African Rift system. In: K.H. Olsen (ed.)Continental rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics. Developments in Geotectonics,25, Elsevier, Amsterdam

BURKE, K. & DEWEY, J.F. 1973. Plume generated triple junctions: key indicators in applying plate tectonics to old rock.Journal of Geology81, 406-433.

BURKE, K. & WHITEMAN, A.J. 1973. Uplift, rifting and break-up of Africa. In TARLING, D.H. & RUNCORN, S.K. (eds)Implications of continental drift to the earth sciences. Academic Press, London. 735-755.

DEWEY, J.F. & BURKE, K. 1974. Hotspots and continental break-up: implications for collisional orogeny.Geology2, 57-60.

DUNCAN, C.C. & TURCOTTE, D.L. 1994. On the breakup and coalescence of continents.Geology22, 103-106.

GURNIS, M. 1988. Large-scale mantle convection and the aggregation and dispersal of continents.Nature332, 695-699.

MORGAN, W.J. 1981. Hotspot tracks and the opening of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In Emiliani, C. (ed) The Sea. Volume 7, 443-487. Wiley, New York.

MORGAN, W.J. 1983. Hotspot tracks and the early rifting of the Atlantic. Tectonophysics94, 123-139.

MURPHY, J.B. & NANCE, R.D. 1992. Mountain belts and the supercontinent cycle.Scientific American266, 84-91.

OLSEN, K.H. & MORGAN, P. 1995. Introduction: Progress in understanding continental rifts. In: K.H. Olsen (ed.)Continental rifts: evolution, structure, tectonics. Developments in Geotectonics,25, 3-26. Elsevier, Amsterdam

SPOHN, T. & SCHUBERT, G. 1982. Convective thinning of the lithosphere: a mechanism for the initiation of continental rifting.Journal of Geophysical Research87, 4669-4681.

WHITE, R.S. & McKENZIE, D.P. 1989. Magmatism at rift zones: the generation of volcanic continental margins and flood basalts.Journal of Geophysical Research94, 7685-7730.

WILSON, J.T. 1966. Did the Atlantic close and then re-open?Nature211, 676-681.


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Foundation repair/remediation contractors usually provide some form of underpinning as one of their services to repair a failed foundation. While underpinning is critical to the repair of foundations, it is also crucial that customers, engineers, remodeling contractors and the general public understand the purpose of underpinning, or foundation shoring, and the limitations of same.

Underpinning is the process of modifying an existing foundation system by extending it to or into subsurface strata that is deeper and more stable than the near surface soil that sup- ports the existing foundation system. This is done to provide vertical support that is not present in the existing design. Methods of underpinning include the construction of footings, stem walls, driven piling or drilled piers.

Many of the houses that forensic engineers and repair contractors are asked to evaluate were constructed with foundations that are inadequate for the conditions existing on site. Because of the lack of suitable land, homes are often built on marginal land that has insufficient bearing capacity to support the substantial weight of a structure. In addition, there are many areas of the country where the near surface soils consist predominantly of expansive clays that shrink and swell as their moisture content changes. As a result, underpinning is required to extend the foundation support to depths that provide greater bearing capacity and/or are less affected by climate, soil conditions and/or homeowners actions. This underpinning, if properly designed and installed, provides the basis to lift the structure to a more acceptable elevation and provides vertical support to prevent the underpinned area from settling.

In many areas of the country, house foundations consist, wholly or in part, of concrete slabs supported directly by the soil. In some instances, the slab portion forms the ground or basement floor, which is structurally independent from the perimeter foundation. In other cases, a similar soil supported floor slab rests on top of, and is partially supported by, the perimeter foundation. In Texas, slabs are generally cast monolithically with perimeter as well as interior beams that are designed to provide sufficient support for the entire structure as well as to provide stiffness to resist differential soil movement enough to limit cracking in the foundation and finishes. Texas slabs are typically reinforced with conventional reinforcing steel (re-bar) and/or post-tensioned cables that are installed throughout both the slab and beam portions of the foundation.


Settlement As A Result Of Poor Pre-Construction Compaction:

Slab-on-grade foundations depend upon the uppermost soil layer( s) to provide sufficient bearing capacity to support the structure and to keep the foundation stable. If the bearing soil was insufficiently compacted prior to construction, the foundation is subject to settlement as the supporting soil consolidates.

Foundation Movement Resulting From Soil Moisture Changes:

Shallower soils are also generally the most affected by seasonal moisture changes. If the bearing soils consist of expansive clays that are subjected to changes in moisture content, differential foundation movement can occur if wetting and drying of the clays does not occur uniformly across the entire slab. This differential movement can result in dishing or doming of the foundation, and can become quite pronounced, especially in areas where the local climatic conditions include extended seasonal periods of both hot, dry weather and cooler, wetter weather. In either case (consolidation or differential shrink/swell movement), inadequate design and/or construction of the foundation can result in unacceptable-performance of the slab-on-grade.


Movement As A Result Of Seasonal Moisture Changes:

As mentioned above, foundations that are built directly on expansive soils that are subjected to non-uniform changes in the soil moisture content can suffer from differential movement. During extended periods of dry weather, the expansive supporting soil shrinks causing foundation settlement. During extended periods of wet weather, the expansive supporting soil swells causing upward movement of the foundation (upheaval). Localized site and environmental factors that promote or limit the flow of water into and out of the supporting soil as well as non-uniform distribution of the expansive soil under the foundation affect the magnitudes of the movement ( either upward or downward) at different locations of the foundation. It is important to understand that it is differential, not the total movement of the foundation that causes damage to the structure. In other words, the performance of a foundation that moves up and down uniformly with the changing seasons is superior to a foundation where the movement is not uniform.

Slab/Foundation Movement Caused By Plumbing Leaks:

A slab-on-grade foundation acts as a vapor barrier by resisting soil moisture variations due to evaporative moisture loss and by shielding the under-slab soil from rainfall. Under optimum conditions, the soil moisture under the slab will achieve a degree of equilibrium. When a plumbing leak occurs under a slab, the moisture equilibrium is distorted. As moisture is added to the soil from the leak, soil and foundation movement often result. The type and degree of movement depends upon soil type and expansiveness, soil density, soil moisture content prior to the leak, the length of time over which the leak has occurred, the quantity of moisture being added to the soil over a given period of time and a few other factors.

If the soils are expansive and were dryer than optimum prior to the leak and have a high density, the foundation/slab will heave (move upward) in the vicinity of the leak and corresponding damages will be apparent in the structure. In this example, the soil will probably not contract significantly after the leak is repaired, which will result in a permanent dome in the slab.

If the soil is at optimum density and moisture prior to the leak, there is an opportunity for the soil to contract. It is possible, but not probable, that the slab will regain its original elevation profile because clay soil expansion/ contraction generally does not follow a linear progression as moisture is added and then reduced. The slab could be permanently left above or below its initial elevation.

Should a leak occur under the slab where the soil is of very low density, the additional moisture often lubricates the solid clay particles and causes consolidation of the support soil prior to leak repair. After the leak is repaired under this example, the slab will often dish or settle (move downward) even more.

NOTE: Concrete and steel will often develop a stress memory after deformation that will not allow the slab to return to its original shape. This may be the result of soil or concrete chips filling cracks in the slab, which prevents the slab from coming back together completely. In a post-tensioned slab, stress in the post-tensioning cables may resist the tendency for the slab to move back into place.


In a conventionally reinforced slab, permanent deformation (yeilding) of the steel reinforcing bars may prevent the slab from returning to its original shape.

Foundation Upheaval Caused by Poor Drainage:

Since additional moisture can cause expansive soils to swell, areas of poor drainage near the foundation can cause the soil under the foundation nearby to swell, resulting in upward movement of the foundation.


Foundation Upheaval Caused by Poor Drainage:

Although pier and beam foundation systems, if properly designed and constructed, will provide protection against settlement; the potential for foundation upheaval due to poor drainage is sometimes present. If, for instance, the perimeter and/or interior grade beams were constructed upon expansive clay soil, without providing avoid under the beam for soil expansion, swelling of the underlying soil may push the beam upward. Swelling soil can also push the supporting piles or piers upward, if they are not designed and constructed to adequately resist uplift. As a result, the grade beam will lift causing differential movement and subsequent cosmetic, and potentially structural, damage. It is, therefore, a good idea to maintain adequate drainage away from any type of foundation, especially where expansive soils are present.

Foundation Settlement Caused by Inadequate Pier Depth:

The piers supporting many older pier and beam foundations may not extend below the zone of expansive soil that is affected by the climate. During periods of dry weather, these shallow piers may not provide sufficient support to portions of the foundation, which may result in differential settlement.

Movement Outside of the Underpinned Area:

If a single area of a foundation is underpinned, only that area will resist downward movement. For example, if only one corner of the foundation is supported by piers, only that corner will resist settlement forces. The rest of the structure will be subject to seasonal settlement as clay soils shrink during dry periods. Therefore, an area that was originally the low portion of the foundation may now become the high point of the house during dry periods. It is also possible that cracking will occur at the last pier if the unsupported area settles and is resisted at this hinge point. It is, therefore, important to carefully evaluate and balance site risk factors against cost savings when electing to partially underpin a foundation.

When underpinning is installed to a stratum that is competent and capable of supporting the structure, it will stop downward movement of the area of the foundation that is supported. Underpinning is generally not designed to keep the foundation from moving upward if the original support clays swell due to an increase in moisture. Plumbing leaks, negative drainage and/or acts of man or nature, can increase the moisture content of the bearing clays. Subsequent upward movement will often occur, which will result in a distorted foundation and cracking in the finishes.

Interior Floor Instability As A Result Of lnterior Settlement and/or Perimeter Upheaval:

It is possible that cracks may occur at doors that are perpendicular to the perimeter walls as the interior slab settles from shrinking of clay soils. Where the wall is tied in to the ceiling and roof structure, a separation can occur between wall and floor. When the floor is secured to the slab, there may be separations between wall and ceiling. In the case of a pier and beam foundation, the wood floor can appear bouncy as a result of the floor beams being lifted off the interior piers in response to perimeter upheaval.

Trees, bushes and other vegetation will draw moisture from under the foundation during times of drought. If the perimeter of a slab-on-grade foundation is underpinned and trees withdraw moisture from under the slab, the interior bearing soil will dry and shrink in volume. As a result, the interior slab may settle and cracking will likely occur in the interior of the home. It is also possible that tree roots under a slab will grow large enough to push the slab upward.

Underpinning is only as good as the contact or connection point between pier/pile and the structure. If the grade beam, thickened slab, or steel beam support is faulty, pier support will not be fully transferred to the foundation and downward movement may occur.

Successful underpinning requires proper design and proper installation of piers/piles. However, even the best design and installation may not ensure a permanent fix. Generally, when the underlying soil moves, the structure resting upon the soil will move correspondingly. Special attention must be given to maintaining a consistent soil moisture level around and beneath the foundation slab, especially in areas with highly expansive clay soils and/or environmentally induced swings in moisture availability.

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During periods of prolonged dryness, the soil surrounding your home shrinks away, causing foundation issues that can grow into severe problems over time.

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Feedback System

Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Antibody

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Antibodies (ASCA)

Antimitochondrial Antibody and AMA M2

APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

B-cell Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangement

Clostridium difficile and C. difficile Toxin Testing

Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)

Estrogen/Progesterone Receptor Status

Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (ENA) Panel

Factor V Leiden Mutation and PT 20210 Mutation

Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy

Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia PF4 Antibody

High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic

Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) Testing

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)

Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester

Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT, aPTT)

Prenatal Group B Strep (GBS) Screening

Protein Electrophoresis Immunofixation Electrophoresis

Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR)

Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification

Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Screen

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Testing

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) and F-actin Antibody

Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio

Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC)

Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio

Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Heart Attack and Acute Coronary Syndrome

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The body uses feedback systems to control certain functions. A feedback system uses one of the products of a pathway, usually the end product, to control the activity of the pathway and to regulate the amount of that product. Feedback control may be positive or negative.

To understand negative feedback, think of how the thermostat in your house controls the temperature. Lets say that the thermostat is set at 70 degrees F (the end product concentration). When the temperature falls below 70 degrees F, the feedback system is triggered and the furnace lights and starts to pump warm air into the house. When the air in the house reaches 70 degrees F, the thermostat shuts off the furnace (no more product made; no more hot air generated). A negative feedback system maintains a steady state or equilibrium and is the one most commonly found in the body.

Positive feedback systems increase the rate of formation of the product. This tends to cause change in the system rather than maintain a steady state. Think of how when a person works hard and is praised for their efforts (given positive feedback), they work harder still, expecting more praise. There are very few positive feedback systems in the body. One example, however, is lactation. The suckling action of an infant produces prolactin, which leads to milk production; more suckling leads to more prolactin, which in turn leads to more lactation. This is a positive feedback system as the product (milk) produces more suckling and more hormone. When the child is no longer breast feeding, the prolactin drops off and milk production goes down.

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